The hollow sphere is not a consequence of electric dipoles only, but also magnetic dipoles, both examples of double layers.

Magnetic behaviour exists within material and so hollow material is not the only spherical outcome. The inverse square law makes an assumption of uniform mass within a given radius. The consequence of applying the gravitational law is a net force of zero in the interior. Hence whether the earth is hollow or a solid uniform mass is not in the purview of the gravitation equation to determine, nor for that matter the electric and magnetic laws . So how we determine a hollow body without digging through is by the seismic characteristics.

Here we need to amend our understanding of seismic behaviours by including magnetic patterning within materials: that is the magneto sono thermo electric complexity of materiality.

To use the standard electron rotor model is to miss the fundamental nuclear magnetic resonance data that describes materiality in terms of decaying oscillations after amplitude and frequency stimulation by magnetic patterning. The neutral dynamic to which these signals decay is not static, nor should we expect it to be. Rather it indicates a state of condensed matter in which the condensed state is nevertheless oscillating sufficiently to be considered as a source of magnetic behaviour, that is rotational trochoidal dynamic surface motion , separated by pressure distinctions we may call surface densities or layers. . These layers will mimic the double layer patterning we see in plasma experiments.

The "Laws of Gravity" are a general version of the "Laws of Condensation", and thus a precursor to the study of the " Laws of Density". The Laws of Density are far from Trivial, but the ratio of pressures acting radiallly toward the centre of symmetry of a large spheroidal mass or approximately spheroidal are well known, and taking an abundant fluid compound as a unit of this pressure action provides a uniform materiality to quantify the effective action of this radial pressure; as a densification measure. Thus assuming an internal body action called material pressure acting radially we can adduce a net radial pressure toward the large spheroidal " mass" centre of symmetry .

Multiplying this assumed pressure per unit radial length by the volume of the material gives us a product that can be depicted as:

the pressure producted with the cross sectional area over which it is acting.

Concentrating only in this instance on the cross section orthogonal to the radial direction of the centre of symmetry of the spheroidal mass we can claim: a pressure acting throughout a spheroidal surface segment is effectively a Force of gravity. .

We do so simply by defining the total force of that area( contained within the original volume) acting through the centre of symmetry is equivalent to: the product of this pressure in a unit lineal radial direction by the volume of the material .

By proportions or ratio( logos) theory we obtain pressure as: a force per unit area.

But more importantly that: the pressure per lineal direction is the density measure of a material . Thus the mass of a region is given by this density measure producted by the volume of that region , in Newtons first definition, the quantity of matter.

Of course we assume a centre of symmetry at which the pressure is assumed to act radially. This centre of symmetry is also the centre of mass, but may not be the centre of Gravity, as that centre lies on a radial line joining the object through its point of anchor to the centre of the larger spheroidal mass.

Thus as we express it, pressure causes condensation of matter , and we may call that a densification or attractive pressure . However there exists also an expansifying pressure not just in opposition but in dynamic rotational relationship with the condensing pressure.

That expansion and contraction exist in materiality is a matter of observation. The best theoretical depiction of that action is a moot point, but in my opinion a rotational trochoidal dynamic is the best solution to a theoretical model.

The rotation need only preponderate toward a centre to depict contraction / implosion, or away from a dynamic centre to depict expansion/ explosion.

Further we may consider the energy or work don within a spheroidal region of linealy acting pressure.

Given that a region has a constant body pressure in a region of gravitational action, we account for this by the region being in dynamic equilibrium and in this instance stationary.

Assuming the pressure is equivalent then to the gravitational force per cross sectional area of the region, that is the ody would be in motion if not held by a counteracting force in equilibrium actin through that cross section , then the mass of that region is a constant, and the gravitational force is assumed constant.

We note by observation that these constants have a proportionality to the observed acceleration of objects in a vacuum , and this too is a constant. By mathmythics we can arrange that the work done by this gravitational force toward the centre is equivalent to the mass producted with the acceleration producted with the displacement toward the spheroidal centre.

Thus the energy within a static body in dynamic equilibrium can be defined by this static situation . If the region is moved against gravity it is said to gain potential energy . The static energy is then rewritten in terms of a supposed universal constant , the speed of light, adjusted to ensure the dimensions match.

The work done is then measured in terms of quanta, the starting quantum being E= mc^2 Where m is this pressure per unit radal length toward the spheroidal centre producted with its volume.

Density is a dynamic and is a measure of the relative trochoidal dynamic within materiality, a measure of the quantity of magnetic behaviour or potential,

Finally I realise the magneto, sono thermo electro photo complex is a better depiction of the spectrum of magnetic behaviours. As these rotational dynamics interact constructively and destructively ( neutrally) they produce bubbles we perceive and describe as particle materiality.

The theory of gravity took a quantitative road when Newton derived the force equation. Keplers observational theory was quantitative but in a overtly geometrical way . And this is the concept that links all quantification : geometrical form both static and dynamic. It is perhaps too simple to say that the dynamic geometry was only considered suitable for primary education when Justus Grassmann pioneered his radical teaching programme during the Prussian renaissance, when the Humboldt reforms dragged Prussia out of the agrarian backwaters into the scientific and industrial revolution of the 19th century, but it is a crucially important development for modern physical theory.

Allied with the Boscovich theory of forces, a mature out working of Newtons principles of Astronomy we should have concluded that the best dynamic geometry for gravity was the trochoidal geometries. What else encapsulates the decaying sinusoidal force models And the hyperbolic force traces Boscovich envisaged?

When Einstein tried to rescue physics and astronomy from its moribund accretion of inconsistencies he turned to the hyperbolic geometries , the so calked NonEuclidean geometries. They were in vogue and provided an exciting "new " way to model physical dynamics. But careful historians pointed out that in fact hyperbolic geometry was not new. It was good old spherical geometry given some new terminology!

So what we can all agree on is the spherical geometry of ancient Astronomers while limiting was the foundation for trochoidal geometry as Eudoxus demonstrated time and again. The picture of motions it gave were necessarily complex, and simplifications were sought not the least bring making the sun the centre of the known Universe!

Strange as that sounds, our current understanding of the Universe is only about a century old! Yes we did think the milky way was the universe, and do did Einstein!

We kno different now!

So what makes trochoidal geometry a more useful model?

The pressure we observe generates rotational and trochoidal force motions we can call vectors/ Trägeren. It is these that give us locally identifiable centres of rotation or symmetry. No matter how we equate pressure definitions or neutralise pressure differences, there is always a larger frame in which those zero sum forces are in fact moving in a rotational dynamic! It is this net densification pressure that we perceive as gravitational. We are always being moved around some attracting and repulsing centre it seems, but in another view we are being moved in a trochoidal pattern which identifies local centres of rotational motion.

The question why belongs to the myth writers and mesmerists who create stories for many reasons, not all of them good!

Because of this trochoidal dynamic being demonstrably associated with magnetic behaviour I personally accept magnetic behaviour as the soundest basis for developing any physical theory and spheroidal spaciometry as the best way to dynamically quantify it. Is the earth Hollow? I do not know but I suspect that it will be a fractal trochoidal pattern within rather than an unspecified " empty" space!

One thing we take as given is: curves can never be straightened and straight lines can never be curved. In our experience we never see a straight line . If it exists in an object it is such a rarity that we suspect human idealism at work. What we do see is multiple curves that interact together to provide a straight edge or a flat surface .. Mathematically we approximate this by adding continuously varying circular or spheroidal functions as in the Fourier series either the sinusoidal version or the Quaternion version. We get these varying curves at different scales by plotting varying magnitudes onto orthogonal straight or curvilineal vectors and vector summing or "plotting" the resultants. In this we use a straight line vector to indicate by its magnitude a certain position.

We often concentrate on one moving position but real dynamics involve multiple positions moving in concert, and thus relatively.

It is a complex motion which in this analysis has an amplitude and frequency and phase attached. In observing this motion we may be apt to ignore the frequency and phase of a dynamic and concentrate solely on the amplitude. Thus we perceive only a displacement between 2 points and depict kit as a straight line motion. High speed photography or films often reveal un imagined perturbations at incredibly high frequencies.

In this light the behaviour of magnetic poles is clearly and visibly rotational by many demonstrable experiments. It makes more sense to me to posit a complex curvilineal interaction as producing a straight coheren beam as in MASING than to presume light travels in straight lines.

Because of vectors/Trägeren we can generalise coordinates of any point. We do not need to be restricted to 3 mutually Orthogonal vectors , but can choose the best vector basis for the description. This vector basis can then explain crystal structures of complex planes and facets .

This is lineal algebra as envisaged by the Grassmans and it includes circular arc vectors.

The deep identity of lineal algebra is that all these multidimensional bases can be reduced by vertical projection to three mutually orthogonal fundamental vectors, which have to be picked by the observer,

When Hamilton finally resolved by brute force the rotational algebra , he knew he needed a fourth " axis" to resolve the calculus. This he called the calculation axis, because the other axes he perceived as " imaginary" quantities.. It has taken a while to relies that these imaginary quantities are in fact quarter circle arc vectors.. The fourth axis was a straight line vector used to resolve the outcome of 3 quarter arc vectors in space. In fact we could regard the vector as one of the three fundamental orthogonal vectors in 3d space . In that regard we could envisage a complex of 12 vectors if it were useful, formed from 3 orthogonal Quaternions in the basis.

Whichever mathematical model is useful to encode observed data, we can build it from these classical mathematical set pieces.

We do not have to be restricted dimensionally or by straight lines, instead we can model the data and resolve it into three fundamental orthogonal basis vectors either straight or curvilineal.

https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4580 Firstly polarisation is a property of materials not of light. While the explanation begins with light it is in fact a derived model based on the material properties, particularly of crystals.

The absorption and re transmission of light is ignored in the video and article explanation. It was found that intensity of retransmitted light and transiting light obeyed a Cosine proportion . . From this it was reasonable to propose an intensity orientation . From this it was found that not only was intensity oriented it was retransmitted by the material in an oriented manner. . Thus polarizers not only reduce light intensity by blocking som of the light but also transmits light with a relative orientation

Light from a general ource did not seem to sho this orientation so it is reasonable to oppose general light is a mixture od dynamically oriented light,

Further experiment with polarizers showed how linearly polarized light from a given crystal can be converted back to dynamically oriented light. We see that the definition is based on a vector sum. This assumes that a sine wave is an accurate model of a light wave . In addition the sine wave variation is supposedly measured by electric intensity variation, but every measuring device for electic intensity is fundamentally calibrated by a magnetic field intensity. The magnetic variation is simply obscured by the electric paradigm, even though all acknowledge it is there! At one time it was taught that the electric field variation was causative of the magnetic fild variation, but in modern updates this is known to be un physical, the 2 variations have o be depicted as coherent but in different planes of variation.

In fact the circular polarisation demonstrates that rotation is the fundamental propagation dynamic for the so called " wave" , and that very little amplitude variation is detectable in a general "EM" signal . What we detect is " step" variations in the voltage on detection by a capacitor or photo electric detector. Ivor Catt in his electromagnetic theory starts with the TEM step wave. I mentioned to him about rotational " waves" or chirality in polarised light waves and he was unfamiliar with the concept, nor saw the connection with the TEM step wave acing in a circuit.

Simply put , the demonstrable magnetic rotation about a wire is a model of the free propagating rotational dynamic we perceive as light. We can then dispense with the electric distinction in light wave theory and electromagnetic theory in general and base it all on a rotating magnetic dynamic behaviour. In that case , the vectors now have a magnitude associated ith the magnetic displacement we associate with voltage and the rotationl sums show up as voltage measures in step wise fashion if they interact by frequncy and phase considerations. Linear polarisation is then a rotation within a material that is transmitted by phase coherence within the material after absorption . MASING is based on frequency and phase coherence summing by resonance to a " break out" amplitude, polarisation is associated with thin ilm regions in materiality, so the resonance time and cavity is very small , the mased propagating light is thus less powerful than the usual amplification, but still coherent and directional and a product of the arterial" cavity" spaciometry and interference properties due to absorption and re transmission not solely refraction, reflection and diffraction, dispersion.

The ferromagnetic behaviour of materials is very relevant in understanding polarisation and polarised light is used to understand and characterise ferro magnetic materiality.

Circular polarization demonstrated by the Faraday effect underpins the notion of an Elrctromagnetic " wave" in materiality, the notion of linear polarization is derivable from circular polarisation and the concept of a magnetic component to light is also demonstrated. Rotation rotation rotation !

When the dynamic curvature in space and materiality in general establishes a dynamic equilibrium, this is the 0th law

We have seen how circular polarisation can be used to describe linear polarisation. Now we shall see how circular polarisation can be used to explain magnetic attraction and repulsion, and thermal expansion and contraction. Wie'll come to understand how MASING is not only a combination of in phase rotational waves, but also a combination of circularly polarised waves.

There are two thermodynamics. The thermodynamics of heat, and the thermodynamics of cold. This difference has been obscured by the use of a single measure of heat pressure. The use that is made of the mercury column to measure the pressure of heat is also the same methodology that is used to measure the presence of cold

The dynamics of expansion is associated with heat, while the dynamics of contraction is associated with cold.

The kinetic theory of gases proposes that the heat expansion is due to the greater or larger increase in the motion of certain particles called molecules or atoms. Of course this does not explain the motion of the atoms or particles or why they should increase in their motion with heat. In the same way the explanation of the phase change from gas to liquid from liquid to solid is based on the root mean square distance of this motion . This motion is universally assumed to be linear. Rotation in this motion is unexplained and if any change in direction because this is due to either collision and bouncing off a colliding object, or do to reflection

There is a mysterious entity or substance called energy which is explanatory of the rate of motion of these particles. In fact the assumed relation of these particles is used to define this notion or entity called energy.

It is not possible to fundamentally define energy in any other way it is also not possible to give a causative explanation as to what energy is. We have to accept that there is a inherent motion in space. Because of that motion can be ascribed to any fanciful or reliable concept of course. For example many ascribe this to a being or a God or an entity.

That being said we made confine ourselves to the observable facts. That is motion and what is the best way to depict that motion? It is my thesis, and the topic of this thread, that the foundational and general motion that we should use to describe this notion is rotation. This is an assumption. It is a logical foundational assumptions because using this as the basis we can obtain all other types Kriens and degree of motion and orientation. Using only linear motion as the foundation needs immediately to the problem of orientation, change of direction and cause of circular motions.

This is not a new idea. This is not an idea that I have invented, but one that falls naturally from the classical assumption of the sphere is the foundational object of study. From the study of the sphere and its projection onto the plane the circle we derive our notions of proportionality but not just static proportionality but also dynamic proportionality.

The action of these circular or spheroidal forces upon each other is what is the topic of study in this thread.

When dealing with the circle or the sphere we have to take into account that it is composed of two expanding and contracting vector or Träger quantities or magnitudes. Surprisingly these are both extensive magnitudes, but they measure a magnitude that is intensive and is called curvature.

As an object becomes colder therefore, there is an increase in this intensity of curvature. As an object gets warmer there is a decrease in this intensity of curvature and the object is seen or experienced to expand. The intensity of curvature naturally depicts For us the contraction of space. When we consider contraction of space it is best to think in terms of the contraction of the sphere. This contraction varies to the third power of the implied radius. Because we have assumed that general rotation is the natural free motions in space we therefore assume that there is no energy required to obtain it. Thereore the expansion requires energy and an interaction with other forces to obtain. Therefore object that is naturally contracting is assumed to be losing energy.

You make an assumption that the absolute state of energy loss when there is no more any loss that can occur is when the rotation occurs about centre and that their radius is at this minimum. It is not physical to assume that there is a Zero radius. However we may assume that this amplitude is very minimal indeed.

Rotations of the above type which have very minimal radius are therefore less likely to interact with other rotations of a greater radius .. Therefore we can assume that a direct hit of this centre will be necessary for there to be any change in the energy and also the rotation of this type of centre.

There is one rule of thumb in nature or even some call it a law and that is that like gathers with like .

However it becomes the common saying of some that within the realms of magnetism that opposites attract and that likes repel. Where is the similarity between this law and the general law of like gathers with like? We'll have to realise that in the statement that is generally used that like repel, perception used to make that statement is switched from vision to kinaesthesia. Thus we see like gathering together with our eyes but we experience like repelling. What is happening is that as we gather like together then obviously like increases and therefore there is more like in the same space. In this way we noticed that gathering like things together increases the amount of space that the like things occupy. When we bring opposite things together we noticed that there is less space occupied in fact the space occupied disappears. What we see is space disappearing, what we feel is opposites attract.

We come to understand that there is a phenomenon called double layer. In this phenomena there are two distinct regions of like and a r But where the two regions meet there is neutrality. This is because the regions of like occupy and fill space the space between is The like areas when they come together causing space to disappear and be filled with neutral space.

There are two types of polarised radiation when they interact they produce neutral or zero or minimal rotation. It is these this zero or neutral rotation centres that are dispersed in the environmental dynamic. Where these centres are not dispersed but rather I get together those regions of space are defined as cold. The two types of polarisation are circular clock wise and circular anticlockwise with the same forward propagation. Phase and frequency determine how these radiations interact after reflection, refraction and diffraction, absorption and re transmission? The sum of both these types is a region of increased energy and Also heat. Where they interact to neutral that is a cold region. A cold region, being less dynamic by definition is easily moved and dissipated by a more dynamic and thus hotter region.

Cold regions arise out of a neutralising of the 2 different kinds of heat,

The radiation is the transmission of the dynamic curvature of a region, which is part of a patterned whole. This patern is a dynamic magnetic behaviour which creates attraction by neutralising the opposing pattern. The environmental dynamic thus moves this neutral dynamic and presses the metal pieces together. Similarly the circular polarised radiation is able to achieve resonance and then dissipate in a coherent burst, decaying back to pre transmission levels.

While we like to define absolute or namely isolated systems, in practice we can oly do our best to verify reasoning based on an unphysical or unobtainable ideal. We do not know if any shielding is truly impervious to all frequencies,phase couplings and amplitudes of disturbance in space . Plus if an equilibrium is said to exist it is not static, but rather a dynamic zero sum. If that dynamic changes then fundamental circularly polarised behaviours will naturally reappear.

While a material attains to a dynamic equilibrium that is based on the magnetic, phononic,thermic electric photonic interactions that is not saying that heat floes toward cold! The equilibriated interaction including the radiation of neutral regions by the dynamic regions is a sum of all these interactions in curvilineal vector terms. And some configurations are more stable than others. Thus some elmnts are more stable than others. Entropy as a measure of"order" is a misleading conception entropy is defined on the specific heats in materiality. As these change in a variety of circumstances entropy can be positive, I creasing, neutral or negative decreasing. The specific heats of materiality, like temperature are local heat pressure measures. In the kinetic theory this is seen as an increase in gas activity or chas! In the magnetic patterning model, it is a bit more complex, but relates to phase incoherence and frequency separation from the equilibrium sum

Like the deck of cards, the circular polarised rotations no longer phase in the previous way. The new equilibrium that is established is just as ordered as the originals , the amplitudes, phase and frequencies we measure are different, not chaotic.

Specific heat works both ways! The change in entropy combined his tongue tip with the pole through water crystallising and becoming a different material with a different dynamic equilibrium and a different specific heat .

Note the heat capacity is about changing heat pressure, or ability to expand or contract mercury. ( or some other expansive materiality) Thus some materials conduct, convect the energy and presure very easily . They absorb and transmit, reflect nd refract,diffract the polarised rotations very easily Some materials do this not so well and take more time to generate th heat presure in mercury. .phase and frequency coherence are more difficult to establish in such materials.absorption and transmission times undoubtedly play a part. If different polarised heat is emitted by an incident region that region will be neutral or cold until it s w"armed up" by other regions summing to a greater amplitude.

The ability to transmit this energy not only differs from material o material, but also onthe same material as its heat presure changes. It is this change thay used as a measure called entropy.

The specific latent heat is measured in terms of quantity of radiation captured and absorbed by a body of materiality and the heat pressure observed. . Here we see that two forms of heat Cancel each other out and the state of materiality changes on a neutral dynamic. . When all the radiation is of the same type within the material body, it sums to an Increase in volume and an increase in heat pressure.

Note that' the specific heat capacity has increased by this specific latent heat capacity. Ice has I specific heat cspaciy, this is increased ny the latent heat. Then by the time stam arrives the capacity has shot up . It s this change that is used in a measure of entropy.

We may depict latent heat by notions of impedance, and therefore entropy is a measure of the change in impedance in materiality, rather than a change in " order".

When a rotation does not match an incident rotation, the phase or frequency difference promotes reflection and refraction and diffraction of the incident rotation . At the same time the receiving rotation is affected by the sum of the rotations in the duration of mismatch. Thus the incident rotation is not smoothly absorbed and retransmitted because the receiving rotation is undergoing change, which alters the amplitude, frequency and phase of its rotation as well as its implied centre. We observe "noisy" vibrations at such Impedance boundaries. We could define such rotations as phase changes where the impedance mismatch tends to a new resonant dynamic that reduces all other rotations by absorption.

Stirring a liquid then assists this equilibrium dynamic tendency by providing a decay process to it from above and below.

The increasing specific latent heat then reflects a MASING process that prepares the materiality to the level of coherency ( note increased order) to deal with the impedance matching process at the next definable phase.

Heat pressure remains constant at these phase changes because the phase differences and frequency differences do not sum to an increased amplitude until the new resonant dynamic is achieved.

So now we can interpret a crystalline substance as a perfect collection of neutral dynamic regions. Such a collection is only possible due to magnetic behaviour, not thermal behaviour. A thermal dynamic naturally disperses neutral dynamic ( rotatio ally zero sum ) regions. Of course . Latent heat shows us that neutral zero sum regions are relative. Thus what we o serve as a zero sum region or surface at which a phase change in materiality occurs which I have defined as cold, may, due to impedance be dynamic relative to another region or surface. . Thus a crystalline materiality is our least morphable phase. In fact it is a phase of constructing regular and definite structure.

In the particle theory articles have to be 'still' but in the rotation dynamic model, this is a state of highest curvature and least inherent energy. The region may be considered quantum and physically rotating about its implied centre, thus interacting minimally with other environmental regions. It is a zero sum dynamic but not physically zero. An external energy input that directly impinges on the region will cause it to alter its curvature and thus expand, increasing its environmental interaction. .

Because it is a zero sum dynamic, it is not indefinitely stable! An environmental change in the composites of the dynamic would lead to the dynamic morphing of this crystalline structure.

One interesting demonstration is how water crystallises in a low pressure environment. The zero sim structure arises as the environmental energy diminishes , leaving a naturally higher curvature dynamic .

Higher curvature is associated with higher frequency and smaller amplitude, but zero sum may have a a lower frequency involved with a minimal amplitude. It is this lower frequency that organises higher frequency minimal amplitude regions into a structure we cal crystalline.

The high frequency regions are therefore dynamic but not enough to affect heat pressure, which also samples amplitude variations in expanding regions. So high frequency inputs bombarding a crystalline structure may eventually increase the overall dynamics of the region, but the correct resonant frequency does this more efficiently.

Ignoring the math, the theory proposes that a sphere in th monatomic model can not rotate about its centre. But then in the NMR model it oes very little Else! This kind of theoretical mismatch leads to unsound conclusions. The NMR model I have discussed before in this thread and the inter thred . The theoretical model is better based absolutely on rotational dynamics.

The relation between pressure and force is normally expressed linearly. I contend it is a curvilineal expression, thus making it reducible to a combination of circular and radial dynamics. I now emphasise the dynamic nature of pressure, in that it is explosive or implosive. Where an equilibrium is established Between these two vorticular dynamics a bubble of spinning materiality may be evident. When we consider these dynamics, the explosive one is associated with n increasing energy within the region, and the implosive ith a decreasing regional energy. . Thus materiality expands as heat energy increases, but contra distinctively the heat energy creates a lower heat presure. . Expansion will reduce the intensity of heat pressure in a region and therefore the rotationl dynamic will be less and structures may appear in these lower presure region., crystallising out of the trochoidal surface dynamics.

On the other hand implosive presure is associated with. An increase in cold energy. As the cold energy increases the heat pressure measure continues to become less because the mercury is contracting! Any heat dynamic appears to be excluded from the region , but in fact a neutral dynamic is dominating a region . This neutral dynamic spirals in toward a centre where the expanding dynamic is combining with the contracting dynamic. .

So the lower heat( expanding) presdure documents a region in which contraction is interacting with expansion and neutral regions are increasing as the dynamic ontinues to a dynamic equilibrium .

We often say heat rises, but it is better to think of a condensing reaction bringing denser, contracting colder materiality into a specified region.

What we call a high presure is a region receiving the counteracting and neutralising implosive energy from space. This is in short a magnetic implosive energy which is part of the natural otational dynamic in space and may be modelled by phase shifting in rotational dynamics at various frequencies.

It is important to understand that an implosive / explosive dynamic is a general norm in rotational dynamic. It is the dynamic interactions that promote or sustain one over the other , but in general the mixture of the two are experienced as a relative thermal dynamic we call radiation, sometimes "hot" sometimes" cold" and sometimes a confusing mixture of sensation.

Heat pressure is an intensive measure, because it measures the interaction dynamic, the frequency, phase nd amplitude of the sum rotations in its measure volume. However atmospheric pressure is an extensive measure because it measures the domination of a volume by a particular compound or element as a density comparison, or concentration comparison. . This type of overall comparison is usually the effect of the materialitirs on each other in a common field of influence. . It is a body interaction more than a surface dynamic interaction.

So now I make sense of a theoretical concept called negative heat pressure . I have posited two types of heat radiation distinguished by circular polarisation. Both sum with like to give a heat pressure expansion as energy is accumulated within a materiality by magnetic patterning. These circularly polarised rotations expand in diameter and contract.

It is the contracting phase of the dynamic I called implosion. It is an inherent part of heat radiation that it rotates and contracts both longitudinally and transversely. Of course the rotationa sum may still expand solely or contract solely or maintain a equilibrium dynamic, as per a Quaternion Fourier transform . The contraction stage of a rotational dynamic may still be " hot" if it delivers heat presdure by bodily moving materiality to occupy its space. However, when an implosive rotation impacts on a contracted or contracting region it enhances the contraction and the object then has a lower heat pressure. If in addition the contracting region is populated by zero sum neutral space the contraction will become even greater and approach absolute zero sum dynamic stability in an increasing region. If this occurs in mercury or some other measuring liquid materiality. Then the crystalline structure is said to be at a negative temperature. The implosive phase of the rotational wave acts to squeeze this space not only into super contraction but also super conductivity of rotational behaviour. Thus negative heat pressure is a theoretical conception of rotationl behaviour at the atomic scale. The supposed spin behaviour of the electron has not been given a negative heat pressure label, and this inconsistency again reveals a theoretical weakness that leads to fundamental inconsistencies.

However, this is hidden behind probability and statistical measures that philosophically allow hidden variables to be conceived as " dark" causation.

Despite having a potential to remain in this state for unimaginable counts of cycles, the configuration is not infinitely stable. The small non zero rotational dynamic is a zero sum, and eventually the omponents will sum up to an unstable regional dynamic that will exhibit expanding regions of the 2 circularly polarised radiations driving zero sum regions in brownian motion dynamics.

The depiction of chemical interaction, electrolysis, and transmutation by magnetic patterning is clear, as is biochemistry and biophysics. The detail in these areas of study often reveal the fundamental powere pure physicists fail to account for. For example: the stereo chemistry of isotopic elements, the quanta involved in chemical formulae as proportions, and the electrostatic and Elrctromagnetic forces involved in protein folding.

All of these reveal a complex rotational dynamic which has many stable or relatively stable "forms", and these firms are often ghosted by plasma discharge forms.

The crystallisation or materialisation of elemental forms is an important dynamic studied but left unexplained by general science, left to mineralogy to codify and label., and yet absolutely foundational to our referencing any minute region of space.

The connection between the geometrical forms of elements and organic compounds and their chemical interaction is a foundational taxonomy that is ignored. Justus Grassmann, and many pioneering ring theorists believed as natural Philosophers that these structures were natures manifest power from which humans had to learn the invariant principles of natures dynamic.

Thus rotation and magnetic behaviour were dimly perceived as elemental behaviours and powers within the Kennen,or ability to know and learn and to become wise( wissen) through experience and expertise, of mankind.

One of the simplest forms the trihedral pyramid becomes a reference for clockwise rotation and gyre toward the observer

Let abc be the base labeled clockwise and d the pyramid point away from the observer and e the pyramid point toward the observer, fixed in some reference frame.common to the observer and the trihedral crystal of 6 faces and 5 vertices . Then the observer may have its an reference frame (lrudfb) within this common one and the trihedral pyramid it's own based on its identified line or edge vectors. . Within the common reference frame a,b,c,d,e are fixed absolute references. Thus abce is a fixed gyre . If the observer has e c,oming towards it it sees a clock wise gyre if d is coming towards it it sees a anticlockwise gyre moving away still described by abce.

Thus acbe is an anticlockwise gyre moving toward or away from the observer depending on whether e is coming toward or away from the observer.

Using this convention we may clearly define the polar vortices or virtues of a magnetic pole. If we define south as abce, then north is acbd.

In a bar magnet acbd is considered the negative of abce. It is this negative that confuses. The sum of these 2 gyres has to be looked at in 4 cases. The sum of like gyres is a straightforward defined sum, in which the gyre increases in rotation and directional influence. What we define is this increase in rotation and influence regardless of local orientation of the pole, once defined against the common reference frame.

Using the clear idea of gyre and the process of determining a reference gyre. I can point out the difficulty of a vortex force model in explaining magnetic behaviour. It does not add up if a local vortex is expected. What are clearly opposites by definition become the same when orientation is reversed! The theoretical issue is due to one piece of information being discounted in a purely vortex model: the identity of the polarity does not change with orientation. A drawn vortex unfortunately does change ith orientation . The virticity of a pole is therefore better characterised by a pressure model . Both north and south polarity are causative pressures that creat vortex forces irrespective of orientation that are opposites within the fixed common reference frame. So while the presdure moves with the materiality the pattern of force vectors circular and trochoidal,does not orient by the materiality. It remains the same as in the common frame of reference , It is a rotating dynamic which is the same no matter where the polarity manifests.

I posit magnetic behaviour as absolute. , in thevsensebthat any vortex of forces used to depict a pole does not change with the orientation of the associated materiality.

We know this to be the case for axial rotation . When the material is moved the pressure pattern moves with it but does not alter its orientation in the common reference frame.

Rather like a bomb explosion or implosion the orientation of the bomb does not alter the spheroidal effect. Of the blast, other materiality does. The idea of intertwining vortices therefore would have to be intertwining explosive and implosive pressure vortices , rather than simple curvilineal lines of force action. The force vectors though curvilineal are depicting a more complex pressure dynamic.

"A sound basis " is a fortunate phrase in magnetic behaviour. It conveys a solid robust foundation for philosophical Theory building as well as a musical basis to interpreting the reams of complex data gathered and observed in this lifelong, ages spanning research.

This graphical display of electromagnetic radiation frequency and rhe scaled playback of that information conveys data human audiophiles can readily interpret! But all of us can recognise the plosive events we regularly hear in wind.

I made an analogy with explosion/ implosion to depict the magnetic polarity behaviour . Rather than stringy or hairy line vectors emanating from a magnetic pole we should imagine explosive and implosive bubbles emanating into the aether.

The idea is not new, and is buried deep in Lord Rayleights notes on wave mechanics.

We are familiar ith the so called longitudinal sound wave. This oscillation isbtransferredbfom the materiality o the environmental aether. Similarly a transverse wave is assumed to donthecsame, theoretically. Pragmatically we use Faradays/ Maxwells lines of force model and thus attach the effect to the " cause" , We must loose this connection and apprehend that magnetic patterning like sound spreads out from poles like sound bubbles spread out from a vibrating reed. Regardless of which orientation the reed is in the sound pattern heard is the same.

Thus the magnetic patterning of the north polarity is different to the south polarity. When they combine thy produce a noiseless still pattern, an audio cancellation effect that enables the dynamic open poles to push the two close poles together.

However when two like pole explosion/ implosions get together: watch out! ! The volume and the pitch may alter and the pressure patterning combine to push the materiality appart

The gyre or vorticularity of the explosions is far too simple n explanation of the effect, but gyres and vortices are involved in. Complex pattern of summation.

We are almost looking at gears formed from dynamic gyres and vortices to explain observations. Haptic studies identify the possible natures of these magnetic patternd.

Having satisfied myself that a simple vector gyre( vortex) is insufficient to explain magnetic behaviour, and that a more complex explosive/ implosive vector gyre is needed, I returne to Ken Wherlers work through considering the interaction of two opposing gyres of varying amplitude and frequency.

The interaction of gyres is unfamiliar to most , be ause Trochoids are unfamiliar. But even when familiar with Trochoids there is still a lot to learn and observe. .

The following videos are worth studying , and relating to a model of physical magnetic behaviour. Polarity 1

Polarity 2

Polarity 3 In each video the rotational dynamic is statically presented and the frequencies are close and fixed. The amplitude of the rotation is dynamically varied only and the gyre is not depicted. When the frequency is the same but opposite the resultant force vector is ellipsoidal , the only distinction is the angle of the major axis of the ellipsoid to distinguish one pole from the other. They are orthogonal to each other.

The videos show the more general case of different frequencies. Compare with Kens Trochoid scheme.

Note the 3 circles in the Incommensurate system

Pi is a distraction here but it is incommensurate The resultant patterns are Trochoids. And the diffraction film demonstrates trochoidal patterns of light

## Comments

The hollow sphere is not a consequence of electric dipoles only, but also magnetic dipoles, both examples of double layers.

Magnetic behaviour exists within material and so hollow material is not the only spherical outcome.

The inverse square law makes an assumption of uniform mass within a given radius. The consequence of applying the gravitational law is a net force of zero in the interior. Hence whether the earth is hollow or a solid uniform mass is not in the purview of the gravitation equation to determine, nor for that matter the electric and magnetic laws .

So how we determine a hollow body without digging through is by the seismic characteristics.

Here we need to amend our understanding of seismic behaviours by including magnetic patterning within materials: that is the magneto sono thermo electric complexity of materiality.

To use the standard electron rotor model is to miss the fundamental nuclear magnetic resonance data that describes materiality in terms of decaying oscillations after amplitude and frequency stimulation by magnetic patterning.

The neutral dynamic to which these signals decay is not static, nor should we expect it to be. Rather it indicates a state of condensed matter in which the condensed state is nevertheless oscillating sufficiently to be considered as a source of magnetic behaviour, that is rotational trochoidal dynamic surface motion , separated by pressure distinctions we may call surface densities or layers. . These layers will mimic the double layer patterning we see in plasma experiments.

The rotation need only preponderate toward a centre to depict contraction / implosion, or away from a dynamic centre to depict expansion/ explosion.

Further we may consider the energy or work don within a spheroidal region of linealy acting pressure.

Given that a region has a constant body pressure in a region of gravitational action, we account for this by the region being in dynamic equilibrium and in this instance stationary.

Assuming the pressure is equivalent then to the gravitational force per cross sectional area of the region, that is the ody would be in motion if not held by a counteracting force in equilibrium actin through that cross section , then the mass of that region is a constant, and the gravitational force is assumed constant.

We note by observation that these constants have a proportionality to the observed acceleration of objects in a vacuum , and this too is a constant.

By mathmythics we can arrange that the work done by this gravitational force toward the centre is equivalent to the mass producted with the acceleration producted with the displacement toward the spheroidal centre.

Thus the energy within a static body in dynamic equilibrium can be defined by this static situation . If the region is moved against gravity it is said to gain potential energy .

The static energy is then rewritten in terms of a supposed universal constant , the speed of light, adjusted to ensure the dimensions match.

The work done is then measured in terms of quanta, the starting quantum being E= mc^2

Where m is this pressure per unit radal length toward the spheroidal centre producted with its volume.

Density is a dynamic and is a measure of the relative trochoidal dynamic within materiality, a measure of the quantity of magnetic behaviour or potential,

Finally I realise the magneto, sono thermo electro photo complex is a better depiction of the spectrum of magnetic behaviours. As these rotational dynamics interact constructively and destructively ( neutrally) they produce bubbles we perceive and describe as particle materiality.

The theory of gravity took a quantitative road when Newton derived the force equation. Keplers observational theory was quantitative but in a overtly geometrical way . And this is the concept that links all quantification : geometrical form both static and dynamic.

It is perhaps too simple to say that the dynamic geometry was only considered suitable for primary education when Justus Grassmann pioneered his radical teaching programme during the Prussian renaissance, when the Humboldt reforms dragged Prussia out of the agrarian backwaters into the scientific and industrial revolution of the 19th century, but it is a crucially important development for modern physical theory.

Allied with the Boscovich theory of forces, a mature out working of Newtons principles of Astronomy we should have concluded that the best dynamic geometry for gravity was the trochoidal geometries. What else encapsulates the decaying sinusoidal force models And the hyperbolic force traces Boscovich envisaged?

When Einstein tried to rescue physics and astronomy from its moribund accretion of inconsistencies he turned to the hyperbolic geometries , the so calked NonEuclidean geometries. They were in vogue and provided an exciting "new " way to model physical dynamics. But careful historians pointed out that in fact hyperbolic geometry was not new. It was good old spherical geometry given some new terminology!

So what we can all agree on is the spherical geometry of ancient Astronomers while limiting was the foundation for trochoidal geometry as Eudoxus demonstrated time and again.

The picture of motions it gave were necessarily complex, and simplifications were sought not the least bring making the sun the centre of the known Universe!

Strange as that sounds, our current understanding of the Universe is only about a century old! Yes we did think the milky way was the universe, and do did Einstein!

We kno different now!

So what makes trochoidal geometry a more useful model?

The pressure we observe generates rotational and trochoidal force motions we can call vectors/ Trägeren. It is these that give us locally identifiable centres of rotation or symmetry. No matter how we equate pressure definitions or neutralise pressure differences, there is always a larger frame in which those zero sum forces are in fact moving in a rotational dynamic! It is this net densification pressure that we perceive as gravitational. We are always being moved around some attracting and repulsing centre it seems, but in another view we are being moved in a trochoidal pattern which identifies local centres of rotational motion.

The question why belongs to the myth writers and mesmerists who create stories for many reasons, not all of them good!

Because of this trochoidal dynamic being demonstrably associated with magnetic behaviour I personally accept magnetic behaviour as the soundest basis for developing any physical theory and spheroidal spaciometry as the best way to dynamically quantify it.

Is the earth Hollow?

I do not know but I suspect that it will be a fractal trochoidal pattern within rather than an unspecified " empty" space!

In our experience we never see a straight line . If it exists in an object it is such a rarity that we suspect human idealism at work. What we do see is multiple curves that interact together to provide a straight edge or a flat surface .. Mathematically we approximate this by adding continuously varying circular or spheroidal functions as in the Fourier series either the sinusoidal version or the Quaternion version.

We get these varying curves at different scales by plotting varying magnitudes onto orthogonal straight or curvilineal vectors and vector summing or "plotting" the resultants.

In this we use a straight line vector to indicate by its magnitude a certain position.

We often concentrate on one moving position but real dynamics involve multiple positions moving in concert, and thus relatively.

It is a complex motion which in this analysis has an amplitude and frequency and phase attached. In observing this motion we may be apt to ignore the frequency and phase of a dynamic and concentrate solely on the amplitude. Thus we perceive only a displacement between 2 points and depict kit as a straight line motion. High speed photography or films often reveal un imagined perturbations at incredibly high frequencies.

In this light the behaviour of magnetic poles is clearly and visibly rotational by many demonstrable experiments.

It makes more sense to me to posit a complex curvilineal interaction as producing a straight coheren beam as in MASING than to presume light travels in straight lines.

Because of vectors/Trägeren we can generalise coordinates of any point. We do not need to be restricted to 3 mutually Orthogonal vectors , but can choose the best vector basis for the description. This vector basis can then explain crystal structures of complex planes and facets .

This is lineal algebra as envisaged by the Grassmans and it includes circular arc vectors.

The deep identity of lineal algebra is that all these multidimensional bases can be reduced by vertical projection to three mutually orthogonal fundamental vectors, which have to be picked by the observer,

When Hamilton finally resolved by brute force the rotational algebra , he knew he needed a fourth " axis" to resolve the calculus. This he called the calculation axis, because the other axes he perceived as " imaginary" quantities..

It has taken a while to relies that these imaginary quantities are in fact quarter circle arc vectors.. The fourth axis was a straight line vector used to resolve the outcome of 3 quarter arc vectors in space. In fact we could regard the vector as one of the three fundamental orthogonal vectors in 3d space . In that regard we could envisage a complex of 12 vectors if it were useful, formed from 3 orthogonal Quaternions in the basis.

Whichever mathematical model is useful to encode observed data, we can build it from these classical mathematical set pieces.

We do not have to be restricted dimensionally or by straight lines, instead we can model the data and resolve it into three fundamental orthogonal basis vectors either straight or curvilineal.

Firstly polarisation is a property of materials not of light.

While the explanation begins with light it is in fact a derived model based on the material properties, particularly of crystals.

The absorption and re transmission of light is ignored in the video and article explanation.

It was found that intensity of retransmitted light and transiting light obeyed a Cosine proportion . . From this it was reasonable to propose an intensity orientation . From this it was found that not only was intensity oriented it was retransmitted by the material in an oriented manner. . Thus polarizers not only reduce light intensity by blocking som of the light but also transmits light with a relative orientation

Light from a general ource did not seem to sho this orientation so it is reasonable to oppose general light is a mixture od dynamically oriented light,

Further experiment with polarizers showed how linearly polarized light from a given crystal can be converted back to dynamically oriented light.

We see that the definition is based on a vector sum. This assumes that a sine wave is an accurate model of a light wave . In addition the sine wave variation is supposedly measured by electric intensity variation, but every measuring device for electic intensity is fundamentally calibrated by a magnetic field intensity. The magnetic variation is simply obscured by the electric paradigm, even though all acknowledge it is there! At one time it was taught that the electric field variation was causative of the magnetic fild variation, but in modern updates this is known to be un physical, the 2 variations have o be depicted as coherent but in different planes of variation.

In fact the circular polarisation demonstrates that rotation is the fundamental propagation dynamic for the so called " wave" , and that very little amplitude variation is detectable in a general "EM" signal . What we detect is " step" variations in the voltage on detection by a capacitor or photo electric detector.

Ivor Catt in his electromagnetic theory starts with the TEM step wave. I mentioned to him about rotational " waves" or chirality in polarised light waves and he was unfamiliar with the concept, nor saw the connection with the TEM step wave acing in a circuit.

Simply put , the demonstrable magnetic rotation about a wire is a model of the free propagating rotational dynamic we perceive as light. We can then dispense with the electric distinction in light wave theory and electromagnetic theory in general and base it all on a rotating magnetic dynamic behaviour.

In that case , the vectors now have a magnitude associated ith the magnetic displacement we associate with voltage and the rotationl sums show up as voltage measures in step wise fashion if they interact by frequncy and phase considerations. Linear polarisation is then a rotation within a material that is transmitted by phase coherence within the material after absorption . MASING is based on frequency and phase coherence summing by resonance to a " break out" amplitude, polarisation is associated with thin ilm regions in materiality, so the resonance time and cavity is very small , the mased propagating light is thus less powerful than the usual amplification, but still coherent and directional and a product of the arterial" cavity" spaciometry and interference properties due to absorption and re transmission not solely refraction, reflection and diffraction, dispersion.

The ferromagnetic behaviour of materials is very relevant in understanding polarisation and polarised light is used to understand and characterise ferro magnetic materiality.

Circular polarization demonstrated by the Faraday effect underpins the notion of an Elrctromagnetic " wave" in materiality, the notion of linear polarization is derivable from circular polarisation and the concept of a magnetic component to light is also demonstrated. Rotation rotation rotation !

When the dynamic curvature in space and materiality in general establishes a dynamic equilibrium, this is the 0th law

We have seen how circular polarisation can be used to describe linear polarisation. Now we shall see how circular polarisation can be used to explain magnetic attraction and repulsion, and thermal expansion and contraction. Wie'll come to understand how MASING is not only a combination of in phase rotational waves, but also a combination of circularly polarised waves.

There are two thermodynamics. The thermodynamics of heat, and the thermodynamics of cold. This difference has been obscured by the use of a single measure of heat pressure. The use that is made of the mercury column to measure the pressure of heat is also the same methodology that is used to measure the presence of cold

The dynamics of expansion is associated with heat, while the dynamics of contraction is associated with cold.

The kinetic theory of gases proposes that the heat expansion is due to the greater or larger increase in the motion of certain particles called molecules or atoms. Of course this does not explain the motion of the atoms or particles or why they should increase in their motion with heat. In the same way the explanation of the phase change from gas to liquid from liquid to solid is based on the root mean square distance of this motion . This motion is universally assumed to be linear. Rotation in this motion is unexplained and if any change in direction because this is due to either collision and bouncing off a colliding object, or do to reflection

There is a mysterious entity or substance called energy which is explanatory of the rate of motion of these particles. In fact the assumed relation of these particles is used to define this notion or entity called energy.

It is not possible to fundamentally define energy in any other way it is also not possible to give a causative explanation as to what energy is. We have to accept that there is a inherent motion in space. Because of that motion can be ascribed to any fanciful or reliable concept of course. For example many ascribe this to a being or a God or an entity.

That being said we made confine ourselves to the observable facts. That is motion and what is the best way to depict that motion?

It is my thesis, and the topic of this thread, that the foundational and general motion that we should use to describe this notion is rotation. This is an assumption. It is a logical foundational assumptions because using this as the basis we can obtain all other types Kriens and degree of motion and orientation. Using only linear motion as the foundation needs immediately to the problem of orientation, change of direction and cause of circular motions.

This is not a new idea. This is not an idea that I have invented, but one that falls naturally from the classical assumption of the sphere is the foundational object of study. From the study of the sphere and its projection onto the plane the circle we derive our notions of proportionality but not just static proportionality but also dynamic proportionality.

The action of these circular or spheroidal forces upon each other is what is the topic of study in this thread.

When dealing with the circle or the sphere we have to take into account that it is composed of two expanding and contracting vector or Träger quantities or magnitudes. Surprisingly these are both extensive magnitudes, but they measure a magnitude that is intensive and is called curvature.

As an object becomes colder therefore, there is an increase in this intensity of curvature. As an object gets warmer there is a decrease in this intensity of curvature and the object is seen or experienced to expand.

The intensity of curvature naturally depicts For us the contraction of space. When we consider contraction of space it is best to think in terms of the contraction of the sphere. This contraction varies to the third power of the implied radius. Because we have assumed that general rotation is the natural free motions in space we therefore assume that there is no energy required to obtain it. Thereore the expansion requires energy and an interaction with other forces to obtain. Therefore object that is naturally contracting is assumed to be losing energy.

You make an assumption that the absolute state of energy loss when there is no more any loss that can occur is when the rotation occurs about centre and that their radius is at this minimum. It is not physical to assume that there is a Zero radius. However we may assume that this amplitude is very minimal indeed.

Rotations of the above type which have very minimal radius are therefore less likely to interact with other rotations of a greater radius ..

Therefore we can assume that a direct hit of this centre will be necessary for there to be any change in the energy and also the rotation of this type of centre. There are two types of polarised radiation when they interact they produce neutral or zero or minimal rotation. It is these this zero or neutral rotation centres that are dispersed in the environmental dynamic. Where these centres are not dispersed but rather I get together those regions of space are defined as cold.

The two types of polarisation are circular clock wise and circular anticlockwise with the same forward propagation. Phase and frequency determine how these radiations interact after reflection, refraction and diffraction, absorption and re transmission?

The sum of both these types is a region of increased energy and Also heat. Where they interact to neutral that is a cold region.

A cold region, being less dynamic by definition is easily moved and dissipated by a more dynamic and thus hotter region.

Cold regions arise out of a neutralising of the 2 different kinds of heat,

The radiation is the transmission of the dynamic curvature of a region, which is part of a patterned whole. This patern is a dynamic magnetic behaviour which creates attraction by neutralising the opposing pattern. The environmental dynamic thus moves this neutral dynamic and presses the metal pieces together.

Similarly the circular polarised radiation is able to achieve resonance and then dissipate in a coherent burst, decaying back to pre transmission levels.

While we like to define absolute or namely isolated systems, in practice we can oly do our best to verify reasoning based on an unphysical or unobtainable ideal. We do not know if any shielding is truly impervious to all frequencies,phase couplings and amplitudes of disturbance in space . Plus if an equilibrium is said to exist it is not static, but rather a dynamic zero sum. If that dynamic changes then fundamental circularly polarised behaviours will naturally reappear.

While a material attains to a dynamic equilibrium that is based on the magnetic, phononic,thermic electric photonic interactions that is not saying that heat floes toward cold! The equilibriated interaction including the radiation of neutral regions by the dynamic regions is a sum of all these interactions in curvilineal vector terms. And some configurations are more stable than others. Thus some elmnts are more stable than others.

Entropy as a measure of"order" is a misleading conception entropy is defined on the specific heats in materiality. As these change in a variety of circumstances entropy can be positive, I creasing, neutral or negative decreasing. The specific heats of materiality, like temperature are local heat pressure measures. In the kinetic theory this is seen as an increase in gas activity or chas! In the magnetic patterning model, it is a bit more complex, but relates to phase incoherence and frequency separation from the equilibrium sum

Like the deck of cards, the circular polarised rotations no longer phase in the previous way. The new equilibrium that is established is just as ordered as the originals , the amplitudes, phase and frequencies we measure are different, not chaotic.

Specific heat works both ways! The change in entropy combined his tongue tip with the pole through water crystallising and becoming a different material with a different dynamic equilibrium and a different specific heat .

Note the heat capacity is about changing heat pressure, or ability to expand or contract mercury. ( or some other expansive materiality)

Thus some materials conduct, convect the energy and presure very easily . They absorb and transmit, reflect nd refract,diffract the polarised rotations very easily

Some materials do this not so well and take more time to generate th heat presure in mercury. .phase and frequency coherence are more difficult to establish in such materials.absorption and transmission times undoubtedly play a part. If different polarised heat is emitted by an incident region that region will be neutral or cold until it s w"armed up" by other regions summing to a greater amplitude.

The ability to transmit this energy not only differs from material o material, but also onthe same material as its heat presure changes. It is this change thay used as a measure called entropy.

The specific latent heat is measured in terms of quantity of radiation captured and absorbed by a body of materiality and the heat pressure observed. . Here we see that two forms of heat Cancel each other out and the state of materiality changes on a neutral dynamic. . When all the radiation is of the same type within the material body, it sums to an Increase in volume and an increase in heat pressure.

Note that' the specific heat capacity has increased by this specific latent heat capacity. Ice has I specific heat cspaciy, this is increased ny the latent heat. Then by the time stam arrives the capacity has shot up . It s this change that is used in a measure of entropy.

We may depict latent heat by notions of impedance, and therefore entropy is a measure of the change in impedance in materiality, rather than a change in " order".

When a rotation does not match an incident rotation, the phase or frequency difference promotes reflection and refraction and diffraction of the incident rotation . At the same time the receiving rotation is affected by the sum of the rotations in the duration of mismatch.

Thus the incident rotation is not smoothly absorbed and retransmitted because the receiving rotation is undergoing change, which alters the amplitude, frequency and phase of its rotation as well as its implied centre. We observe "noisy" vibrations at such Impedance boundaries. We could define such rotations as phase changes where the impedance mismatch tends to a new resonant dynamic that reduces all other rotations by absorption.

Stirring a liquid then assists this equilibrium dynamic tendency by providing a decay process to it from above and below.

The increasing specific latent heat then reflects a MASING process that prepares the materiality to the level of coherency ( note increased order) to deal with the impedance matching process at the next definable phase.

Heat pressure remains constant at these phase changes because the phase differences and frequency differences do not sum to an increased amplitude until the new resonant dynamic is achieved.

So now we can interpret a crystalline substance as a perfect collection of neutral dynamic regions. Such a collection is only possible due to magnetic behaviour, not thermal behaviour. A thermal dynamic naturally disperses neutral dynamic ( rotatio ally zero sum ) regions. Of course . Latent heat shows us that neutral zero sum regions are relative. Thus what we o serve as a zero sum region or surface at which a phase change in materiality occurs which I have defined as cold, may, due to impedance be dynamic relative to another region or surface. .

Thus a crystalline materiality is our least morphable phase. In fact it is a phase of constructing regular and definite structure.

In the particle theory articles have to be 'still' but in the rotation dynamic model, this is a state of highest curvature and least inherent energy. The region may be considered quantum and physically rotating about its implied centre, thus interacting minimally with other environmental regions. It is a zero sum dynamic but not physically zero. An external energy input that directly impinges on the region will cause it to alter its curvature and thus expand, increasing its environmental interaction. .

Because it is a zero sum dynamic, it is not indefinitely stable! An environmental change in the composites of the dynamic would lead to the dynamic morphing of this crystalline structure.

One interesting demonstration is how water crystallises in a low pressure environment. The zero sim structure arises as the environmental energy diminishes , leaving a naturally higher curvature dynamic .

Higher curvature is associated with higher frequency and smaller amplitude, but zero sum may have a a lower frequency involved with a minimal amplitude. It is this lower frequency that organises higher frequency minimal amplitude regions into a structure we cal crystalline.

The high frequency regions are therefore dynamic but not enough to affect heat pressure, which also samples amplitude variations in expanding regions. So high frequency inputs bombarding a crystalline structure may eventually increase the overall dynamics of the region, but the correct resonant frequency does this more efficiently.

Ignoring the math, the theory proposes that a sphere in th monatomic model can not rotate about its centre. But then in the NMR model it oes very little Else! This kind of theoretical mismatch leads to unsound conclusions.

The NMR model I have discussed before in this thread and the inter thred . The theoretical model is better based absolutely on rotational dynamics.

The relation between pressure and force is normally expressed linearly. I contend it is a curvilineal expression, thus making it reducible to a combination of circular and radial dynamics.

I now emphasise the dynamic nature of pressure, in that it is explosive or implosive. Where an equilibrium is established Between these two vorticular dynamics a bubble of spinning materiality may be evident.

When we consider these dynamics, the explosive one is associated with n increasing energy within the region, and the implosive ith a decreasing regional energy. .

Thus materiality expands as heat energy increases, but contra distinctively the heat energy creates a lower heat presure. . Expansion will reduce the intensity of heat pressure in a region and therefore the rotationl dynamic will be less and structures may appear in these lower presure region., crystallising out of the trochoidal surface dynamics.

On the other hand implosive presure is associated with. An increase in cold energy. As the cold energy increases the heat pressure measure continues to become less because the mercury is contracting! Any heat dynamic appears to be excluded from the region , but in fact a neutral dynamic is dominating a region . This neutral dynamic spirals in toward a centre where the expanding dynamic is combining with the contracting dynamic. .

So the lower heat( expanding) presdure documents a region in which contraction is interacting with expansion and neutral regions are increasing as the dynamic ontinues to a dynamic equilibrium .

We often say heat rises, but it is better to think of a condensing reaction bringing denser, contracting colder materiality into a specified region.

What we call a high presure is a region receiving the counteracting and neutralising implosive energy from space. This is in short a magnetic implosive energy which is part of the natural otational dynamic in space and may be modelled by phase shifting in rotational dynamics at various frequencies.

It is important to understand that an implosive / explosive dynamic is a general norm in rotational dynamic. It is the dynamic interactions that promote or sustain one over the other , but in general the mixture of the two are experienced as a relative thermal dynamic we call radiation, sometimes "hot" sometimes" cold" and sometimes a confusing mixture of sensation.

Heat pressure is an intensive measure, because it measures the interaction dynamic, the frequency, phase nd amplitude of the sum rotations in its measure volume. However atmospheric pressure is an extensive measure because it measures the domination of a volume by a particular compound or element as a density comparison, or concentration comparison. . This type of overall comparison is usually the effect of the materialitirs on each other in a common field of influence. . It is a body interaction more than a surface dynamic interaction.

So now I make sense of a theoretical concept called negative heat pressure . I have posited two types of heat radiation distinguished by circular polarisation. Both sum with like to give a heat pressure expansion as energy is accumulated within a materiality by magnetic patterning.

These circularly polarised rotations expand in diameter and contract.

It is the contracting phase of the dynamic I called implosion. It is an inherent part of heat radiation that it rotates and contracts both longitudinally and transversely.

Of course the rotationa sum may still expand solely or contract solely or maintain a equilibrium dynamic, as per a Quaternion Fourier transform .

The contraction stage of a rotational dynamic may still be " hot" if it delivers heat presdure by bodily moving materiality to occupy its space. However, when an implosive rotation impacts on a contracted or contracting region it enhances the contraction and the object then has a lower heat pressure.

If in addition the contracting region is populated by zero sum neutral space the contraction will become even greater and approach absolute zero sum dynamic stability in an increasing region.

If this occurs in mercury or some other measuring liquid materiality. Then the crystalline structure is said to be at a negative temperature. The implosive phase of the rotational wave acts to squeeze this space not only into super contraction but also super conductivity of rotational behaviour.

Thus negative heat pressure is a theoretical conception of rotationl behaviour at the atomic scale. The supposed spin behaviour of the electron has not been given a negative heat pressure label, and this inconsistency again reveals a theoretical weakness that leads to fundamental inconsistencies.

However, this is hidden behind probability and statistical measures that philosophically allow hidden variables to be conceived as " dark" causation.

Despite having a potential to remain in this state for unimaginable counts of cycles, the configuration is not infinitely stable. The small non zero rotational dynamic is a zero sum, and eventually the omponents will sum up to an unstable regional dynamic that will exhibit expanding regions of the 2 circularly polarised radiations driving zero sum regions in brownian motion dynamics.

The depiction of chemical interaction, electrolysis, and transmutation by magnetic patterning is clear, as is biochemistry and biophysics. The detail in these areas of study often reveal the fundamental powere pure physicists fail to account for.

For example: the stereo chemistry of isotopic elements, the quanta involved in chemical formulae as proportions, and the electrostatic and Elrctromagnetic forces involved in protein folding.

All of these reveal a complex rotational dynamic which has many stable or relatively stable "forms", and these firms are often ghosted by plasma discharge forms.

The crystallisation or materialisation of elemental forms is an important dynamic studied but left unexplained by general science, left to mineralogy to codify and label., and yet absolutely foundational to our referencing any minute region of space.

The connection between the geometrical forms of elements and organic compounds and their chemical interaction is a foundational taxonomy that is ignored.

Justus Grassmann, and many pioneering ring theorists believed as natural Philosophers that these structures were natures manifest power from which humans had to learn the invariant principles of natures dynamic.

Thus rotation and magnetic behaviour were dimly perceived as elemental behaviours and powers within the Kennen,or ability to know and learn and to become wise( wissen) through experience and expertise, of mankind.

One of the simplest forms the trihedral pyramid becomes a reference for clockwise rotation and gyre toward the observer

Let abc be the base labeled clockwise and d the pyramid point away from the observer and e the pyramid point toward the observer, fixed in some reference frame.common to the observer and the trihedral crystal of 6 faces and 5 vertices .

Then the observer may have its an reference frame (lrudfb) within this common one and the trihedral pyramid it's own based on its identified line or edge vectors. .

Within the common reference frame a,b,c,d,e are fixed absolute references. Thus abce is a fixed gyre . If the observer has e c,oming towards it it sees a clock wise gyre if d is coming towards it it sees a anticlockwise gyre moving away still described by abce.

Thus acbe is an anticlockwise gyre moving toward or away from the observer depending on whether e is coming toward or away from the observer.

Using this convention we may clearly define the polar vortices or virtues of a magnetic pole. If we define south as abce, then north is acbd.

In a bar magnet acbd is considered the negative of abce. It is this negative that confuses.

The sum of these 2 gyres has to be looked at in 4 cases. The sum of like gyres is a straightforward defined sum, in which the gyre increases in rotation and directional influence. What we define is this increase in rotation and influence regardless of local orientation of the pole, once defined against the common reference frame.

Using the clear idea of gyre and the process of determining a reference gyre. I can point out the difficulty of a vortex force model in explaining magnetic behaviour. It does not add up if a local vortex is expected. What are clearly opposites by definition become the same when orientation is reversed!

The theoretical issue is due to one piece of information being discounted in a purely vortex model: the identity of the polarity does not change with orientation.

A drawn vortex unfortunately does change ith orientation .

The virticity of a pole is therefore better characterised by a pressure model .

Both north and south polarity are causative pressures that creat vortex forces irrespective of orientation that are opposites within the fixed common reference frame.

So while the presdure moves with the materiality the pattern of force vectors circular and trochoidal,does not orient by the materiality. It remains the same as in the common frame of reference ,

It is a rotating dynamic which is the same no matter where the polarity manifests.

I posit magnetic behaviour as absolute. , in thevsensebthat any vortex of forces used to depict a pole does not change with the orientation of the associated materiality.

We know this to be the case for axial rotation .

When the material is moved the pressure pattern moves with it but does not alter its orientation in the common reference frame.

Rather like a bomb explosion or implosion the orientation of the bomb does not alter the spheroidal effect. Of the blast, other materiality does. The idea of intertwining vortices therefore would have to be intertwining explosive and implosive pressure vortices , rather than simple curvilineal lines of force action. The force vectors though curvilineal are depicting a more complex pressure dynamic.

This graphical display of electromagnetic radiation frequency and rhe scaled playback of that information conveys data human audiophiles can readily interpret!

But all of us can recognise the plosive events we regularly hear in wind.

I made an analogy with explosion/ implosion to depict the magnetic polarity behaviour . Rather than stringy or hairy line vectors emanating from a magnetic pole we should imagine explosive and implosive bubbles emanating into the aether.

The idea is not new, and is buried deep in Lord Rayleights notes on wave mechanics.

We are familiar ith the so called longitudinal sound wave. This oscillation isbtransferredbfom the materiality o the environmental aether. Similarly a transverse wave is assumed to donthecsame, theoretically. Pragmatically we use Faradays/ Maxwells lines of force model and thus attach the effect to the " cause" ,

We must loose this connection and apprehend that magnetic patterning like sound spreads out from poles like sound bubbles spread out from a vibrating reed. Regardless of which orientation the reed is in the sound pattern heard is the same.

Thus the magnetic patterning of the north polarity is different to the south polarity. When they combine thy produce a noiseless still pattern, an audio cancellation effect that enables the dynamic open poles to push the two close poles together.

However when two like pole explosion/ implosions get together: watch out! ! The volume and the pitch may alter and the pressure patterning combine to push the materiality appart

The gyre or vorticularity of the explosions is far too simple n explanation of the effect, but gyres and vortices are involved in. Complex pattern of summation.

We are almost looking at gears formed from dynamic gyres and vortices to explain observations.

Haptic studies identify the possible natures of these magnetic patternd.

The interaction of gyres is unfamiliar to most , be ause Trochoids are unfamiliar. But even when familiar with Trochoids there is still a lot to learn and observe. .

The following videos are worth studying , and relating to a model of physical magnetic behaviour.

Polarity 1

Polarity 2

Polarity 3

In each video the rotational dynamic is statically presented and the frequencies are close and fixed. The amplitude of the rotation is dynamically varied only and the gyre is not depicted.

When the frequency is the same but opposite the resultant force vector is ellipsoidal , the only distinction is the angle of the major axis of the ellipsoid to distinguish one pole from the other. They are orthogonal to each other.

The videos show the more general case of different frequencies.

Compare with Kens Trochoid scheme.

Note the 3 circles in the Incommensurate system

Pi is a distraction here but it is incommensurate

The resultant patterns are Trochoids. And the diffraction film demonstrates trochoidal patterns of light