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# A sound basis to Rotational Dynamics

• In this explanation Robtille attempts to construct the sun from condensed hydrogen , by a proton proton interaction. He specifically rules out electric field as causative, relying on the inherent concept of proton charge.

What is this " charge"? First of all we need to identify the Boscovich atom! And then we can talk coherently about what charge is . I have suggested that charge is a frequency of rotation with a given phase and amplitude , it is a trochoidal rotational dynamic effect of pressure urfaces interacting .

This I call simply magnetic behaviour, which makes charge in its simplest expression a magnetic phenomenon.

The question about monopolat magnetic behaviour is a non question. Frequency and phase make up a multipolar dynamic, as we see often in lodestone . That these multiples interfere to produce a few dominant ones is to be expected , but to be confined to two is a signal of remarkable coherency.
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From the very outset the viewer is misdirected . All those laws are only apparently constant , electrons , charge etc are all unresolved concepts, the flow of a current , the direction of the current etc all analogies that obscure.
Notice the astronauts report a slight vibration in the tether. Rotational dynamics of materials, especially lattices are simply ignored. .

The relative motion of phase rotations are what we observe as electrons, cations anions and protons etc.

Note how the power flows around materials . But sparks jump between bodies with different capacitance. When a person provides a boundary between a region of high power filled to its capacitance to hold that power, often called charge but as I say the resonating pressure variations of rotational dynamics , in that case , between a high power region and a low power region the person becomes a boundary that dynamically oscillates , and that at all the frequencies.

That fixed boundary oscillation is lethal. When the boundary is not fixed, and the body can oscillate in coherence with the power frequencies this is not lethal because the body is adaptive , but capacitance differences can cause incoherent rotational dynamics . These can be disruptive or even trigger heart problems.

The capacitance differences are what we traditionally observe as a charge flow, but what we can consider it as is transducing between regions of different rotational dynamics . It is that transducing that we call electric current and seek to explain not by phase changed
S but by particle physics .

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These are rotational or torsion waves or Schwenken, pendula that are driven by the torsion disturbance in a tensile wire. The frequency of the disturbance in torsion is controlled by the pendula lengths. Metronomes work in an analogous fashion

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanical-electrical_analogies
This reference came up in a search for relationships between impedance and inertia. The wave phenomenon is not possible to explain without inertia. It is inertia that time limits a reaction to an impulse. And it is this time limit we perceive as a travelling disturbance .

Whatever the disturbance the wave phenomenon is an inductive process within a medium which has inertial properties.

http://engineering.nyu.edu/mechatronics/Control_Lab/Criag/Craig_RPI/2001/Physical_Modeling_Mechanical.pdf
Some points to consider

Indicating impedance and inertia are coupled concepts in dynamic systems
• Maybe you like me thought that a wire was carrying a current, and the friction of that current caused it to get hot! Well we know that is not the case for small bore plumbing? The velocity of the flow increases in the small bore as the fluid transitions from a large bore feeder pipe. The tell tale knocking in the pipes betrays the pressure dynamics that are occuring
It is these pressure dynamics which occur in a thin wire during a short circuit. The frequency of the oscillation is what is observed as heat and light and other radio wave and spark transmissions. What we are seeing is the overloading of the capacitance of the thin wire to contain the frequencies or support the frequencies the battery is putting out.

Resistors, capacitors and inductance coils all modify the effects and support of the frequencies being established within a battery driven circuit .

We think of a fluid by the analogy of a particle, whereas what we observe is turbulence or coherent dynamics in fluids. It should not surprise us then that liquids absorb vast ranges of frequencies and amplitudes and phases, as these are components of turbulence

When a liquid boils we see the turbulent behaviour as larger phase and amplitude variations cohere " turbulently" . For a Leyden jar, or any electrolytic bath the frequencies and phases combine in material motion, only boiling when the amplitude of the battery creates a huge un supportable disturbance .
• The open circuit impedance is a mystery in wave mechanics. One would expect a termination to reflect an inverse wave form, but I tstead a free end does this. The termination is thus not due to mechanical behaviour. What terminates is a wave guide for a magnetic rotation. Instead an environmental source not only counteracts the magnetic torsion it acts as a termination of it about the wire. It not only sends back a rotationa wave it exactly cancels the incident one out.
Only when the power is strong enough will the magnetic rotation disturb the air quickly enough to create a spark that atcs to the nearest low impedance region . In the meantime the rotational dynamics creates filamentary sparks which are ephemeral.
• edited April 2017
Inertial waves relate directly to magnetic disturbance transfer

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inertial_wave

In free space around a conductor/ inductor within a rotating frame like the earth , sun or any planetary system or galaxy

Magnetic instability!

Abstract. Sunspots are of basic interest in the study of the Sun. Their relevance ranges from them being an activity indicator of magnetic fields to being the place where coronal mass ejections and flares erupt. They are therefore also an important ingredient of space weather. Their formation, however, is still an unresolved problem in solar physics. Observations utilize just 2D surface information near the spot, but it is debatable how to infer deep structures and properties from local helioseismology. For a long time, it was believed that flux tubes rising from the bottom of the convection zone are the origin of the bipolar sunspot structure seen on the solar surface. However, this theory has been challenged, in particular recently by new surface observation, helioseismic inversions, and numerical models of convective dynamos. In this article we discuss another theoretical approach to the formation of sunspots: the negative effective magnetic pressure instability. This is a large-scale instability, in which the total (kinetic plus magnetic) turbulent pressure can be suppressed in the presence of a weak large-scale magnetic field, leading to a converging downflow, which eventually concentrates the magnetic field within it. Numerical simulations of forced stratified turbulence have been able to produce strong super- equipartition flux concentrations, similar to sunspots at the solar surface. In this framework, sunspots would only form close to the surface due to the instability constraints on stratification and rotation. Additionally, we present some ideas from local helioseismology, where we plan to use the Hankel analysis to study the pre-emergence phase of a sunspot and to constrain its deep structure and formation mechanism.
Keywords. Sun: sunspots, Sun: magnetic fields, turbulence, helioseismology
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.04062.pdf
• When the rotational dynamics around and inductor/conductor meets the impedance of free space it experiences a dead stop. This is due to the inertial "gravity" or inertial magnetic restorative force within the Earth's magnetic dynamic .
This magnetic dynamic not only provide a restorative force but it also provides a counterforce to the rotating force within the magnetic field around the conductor. Thus when a conductor is in free space and without a circuit connection then the restorative force makes the surrounding magnetic dynamic around the conductor sum to zero.

When the circuit is closed then the restorative force in the environmental magnetic field is not able to enter into the circuit that is close with a battery. With a battery in a closed circuit the main driver for the magnetic rotating dynamic around the wire is the chemical or the dynamic rotating reactions taking place within the battery

In an open circuit free and terminates in the external magnetic field where as in a closed circuit the free and does not exist in the magnetic field around the wire originates and terminates in the battery. The conductor/inductor guides this magnetic rotating dynamic through the external magnetic dynamic . This is just another way of saying that the impedance in the circuit matches all the way through and therefore the magnetic dynamic maintains within that standard impedance. With the impedance changes in the magnetic dynamic changes
• edited April 2017
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_potential#
I have had a chance to give this piece of mathematical explanation and theory a glance through. It is quite difficult to follow if you are anyway phased by the mathematical presentation.

It simply says that if a current is placed in free space then it acts the same way as a magnetic field or magnetic potential vector called A.

Theoretically A is no different to a current. When Lord Kelvin introduced the idea of a magnetic potential he made no distinction between the current and the magnetic effects of the Current. Of course this was a theoretical position. He simply made measurement of the potential at different places around a magnetic for a current carrying wire.

The magnetic current carrying wire or the magnetic potential are derived from the measurements that were made around a magnetic current carrying wire. Mathematically whether it is a magnetic current or an electric is not in any way disputed. What is used isthe measurement around the experimental setup, which chiefly consist in a solenoid wire which can carry a current which is probably produced by a battery but maybe produced by a dynamo or generator. The difference between the electric current that is posited by theory and what is actually measured by measurements in practice is a fine points. We cannot make any real distinction between an electric current or a magnetic. We assume that there is a flow of things called electrons in wire, but we actually observe the behaviour of magnetic loops or magnetic effects around a wire in which an electric current is assumed.

Lord Kelvin wrote his theory of madnesses in 1851. It was meant to be an updated version of Sir William Gilbert's magnetic theory. It was later followed by Maxwells theory of electromagnetsm colour which made use of Lord Kelvin's ideas including the magnetic potential. WhenHelmholtz and Hertz and Heaviside decided to make full use of Maxwells theory to explain electricity in one years and in circuits, they then got rid of the magnetic potential which Kelvin had made a big point that's it became gradually fashionable to discuss these matters not in terms of magnetic potential or magnetic current but in terms of electric current and electric fields. .

The difficulty theoretically arises from the work of two people or three. Ampere and Biot/ Savot.. Of the 2 Ampere considered the internal behaviour with in a material and constructed little magnetic currents that flowed within material. In his idea the electric currents that flow in a set when made up of these little magnetic currents that flow within the wire which in turn were made up of some kind of circuit of material which produces a magnetic effect. The circuit is an unspecified but it could be considered to be an electric current is an electric current is established in the real world circuit.

However Ampere left this part of the deconstruction undecided. Amperes hypothesis was that these little circuits flowed in a current with in a wire. It was Biot that decided to ignore what was flowing in a wire and just to use directed lines which went around a wire in which the current an electric current ŵas assumed.
Later research is replaced on pairs little circuits with electrons only to find that this was an insufficient explanation of the development of magnetism around the wire. Eventually they replaced the electron as a particle with a electron that was spinning which therefore fulfilled Amperes frequirement of a circuit of some materiality.

Lord Kelvin in choosing to define the magnetic potential was really acknowledging the fact that all measurements of electricity were based on the effect on a magnet. Therefore to decide what was electric and what was magnetic was not possible within the theoretical framework. Thus he decided to use the concept of a magnetic potential from which he could then derive the concept of an electric potential

I woke this morning with the resolution to get rid of the idea of an electromagnetic spectrum and to instead consider the concept of a magnetic spectrum in which we start with magnetism followed by sound and then by heat and then by electric effects and then on to light ultraviolet light x-rays and gamma rays. within the region which I have loosely termed the electric of the affected week all radio and a microwave and other Electric effects.

I express the view that electric effects are modes of magnetic behaviour in the frequency range between radio and microwave and light , but there is no sharp distinction between electric and other so called Electromagnetic behaviours of higher frequency.
• Why use measurement rhetoric?

Philosophically it is important to have decidability . Words and symbols are slippery but a physical Metron is concrete. A dynamic Metron like a metronome is less concrete but robust connections can be established with concrete metrons that are decide able. With these units we can establish a decide able process called counting or accounting. It is this process of accounting that is at the heart of the Stoikria.

The pythagoreans established a constructive discourse that revealed what could be decided and what could not.
The greek Mathema refers to this experimental, manipulation of concrete forms to decide things! It is often translated as scientific thinking.but the PIE roots indicate thinking and measuring by handling .

We can decide certain things by counting and mathematics expresses those countable things precisely, in the main ( vide NJWildberger)

In the end mathematics is of limited use in describing the cosmos if it ignores spaciometric and proprioception aspects of counting. This aspect is fundamental to the Pythagorean viewpoint or experience and is captured by the Kinesis Skesis duality of their discourse. The dynamics of development (elike) and thus change which encapsulates dynamic motion, are simply fundamentals of their thought and analysis. And thus their synthesis. Kinesis and Skesis usually in modern or classical expression are termed Kinetic and Static descriptions of a dynamic ever changing materiality.
Panta Rhei
And mathematics is pants if it loses connection with the Mathematikos, the person doing Astrological research .
• edited April 2017

Magnetic background to the solar system demonstrates Nasas reliance on magnetism not electricity to complement gravitational astronomy.

Claridge explains about the double layer in plasma that flies in the face f the rule of thumb we get taught! Like charges collect together!( they do not repel but enter into a dynamic jostling of each other within a magnetic environment! They circulate or spiral amongst each other in free space.

Opposite charges attract each other into a stable nul charge! The resultant is a spinning or rotational nul charge region or rather a trochoidally dynamic region.

Magnets and magnetic dipoles are double layers within a crystalline structure. The magnetic influence is what we o serve and it generates the double layer from so called charges. The idea of charge is the Boscovich notion of force dynamic within his theory of force.

Asserting that magnetic behaviour is fundamental, I also assert that trochoidally dynamic surfaces with variable phase, frequncy and amplitude are the best geometrical algebraic model of this fundamental behaviour.
I assert no cause fir magnetic behaviour, only that it patently exists and is best described by trochoidal dynamics.

It is these modes that I assert may be taken as represented by common terms like charge, particle, force,inertia, permittivity permeability and capacitance and inductance .

These ideas applied to materiality distinguish the battery and chemical and field / atmosphere interactions that give out so called electric energy and capacitors and inductors and Hus any "double layered " device from each other .

If we use the analogy of a flowing current let it first apply to a magnetic current and to all that such a flux carries and generates

As much as lectrical engineers want lrctricity to be included in cosmology and comogeny it should be as Kelvin posited a magnetic potential at a certain frequency and phase.

Why ? Because an electric spark carries materiality with it and that is what is meant by the electro s and protons in a plasma . What differentiates and confines these like charged materials is a magnetic co straint or differential inertia. The magnet inertial differences exhibits as a double layer in which like charges are collected together.or rather like phases run together. The two regions develop a potential difference dependent on the phase dynamics within the " duty cycle" . The duty cycle is the equilibrium phase and when all phases coalesce or cohere the amplitude builds suddenly to a huge discharge with constructive interference or disappears (! Note Eric Dollard) with destructive interference

What is therefore varying , what we perceive in these demonstrations is the underlying fundamental magnetic patterning dynamic or if you prefer the Aether or space-time .

The Rotation of this aether is Radiation!

• Walt Thornhill explains using the charge particle model however both JJ Thompson and Ed questioned whether the electron was a particle?
The o called electron is a normalised force to mass moved ratio. In gravity that ratio is made congruent to a instant acceleration in the vicinity of the earth. Thus in a Crookes radiometer it is the constant acceleration of mass under a magnetic potential of a frequency in the radio range and an amplitude of a high voltage discharge.

Given this mass acceleration one can more easily see that the plasma in the radiometer is accelerated by the concomitant magnetic pressure called the Electric / electro motive/ electromagnetic force.

Here on earth, expressed by some driver circuit it was hard to think outside th box and see not a current flowing in a pipe, great or plumbers and engineers , but a magnetic induction energy swirling around a wire.

But Heaviside and Hertz did. They took Keivins magnetic potential vector and made it equal to a current in free space, so that a wire could be its guide through specified space. The idea of a current in a transmission line set up was developed as a physical expression of this magnetic induction energy guided through space, and reciprocating like a vibrating string.

It tookmIvor Catt to revive these ideas about what is being guided by a wire in a circuit, and to demonstrate that it applied o modern semiconductor logic chip design !

It was difficult for Ivor to make progress with advancing the idea, particularly as he chose to link it to a form of TEM step wave. He had no chirality, rotation or longitudinal element in his theoretical model. Nevertheless less it was sufficient for his needs in chip design, and to announce the death of the electric current.

The electro magnetic wave posited by theory was subtly incorrect. Later and quietly Electromagnetic theory dropped Feynmanns rolling wave idea and simply asserted a combined wave form .

The matter is moot. Theoretically solutions to the equations involve Fouier series, but in practice ivor showed this was not necessary. The results required for circuit design were fairly straight onward ratios! , but ivor missed the connection to rotational phase, frequency and amplitude. The Catt questions invoked an intriguing response , but the TEM strp wave solves the problem by bypassing charge moving or appearing in or on a wire surface.

The full picture is that a magnetic induction travels around and between ire pairs at a given phase, frequncy and amplitude. Giveng power to the induced materiality, and exciting plasma within nd around materials o move and. Oscillate at a range of frequencies. .some frequencies are the so called lectron frequency and that tends to be higher than the anion frequency . Within a fixed lattice any material drift is restricted to oscillations, but within fluids drift occurs in both directions forming a double layer! All so called negative gather at one electrode the cations t the anode , and all positive gather at the other anions at the cathode.

We see that far from likes repelling, they all congregate together under a magnetic induction

Within a bar magnet the double later is formed and held in place by a permanent magnetic behaviour.
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A nice point to finish on!
So let me define the cause for mass transfer and mass charge differences to be the various modes of magnetic behaviour characterised by frequency, phase and amplitude. .

Lot of insight into double layers.

Basic ideas and observations.

Out in space the structure of plasma reveals the mahmetic behaviour as an all pervasive medium.
One of the standing puzzles is how is a magnetic fild generated ! So the theory is that a current generates. Magnetic field. Moving. Charge "generates" a magnetic field . However in a wire we see no moving charge, in a fluid like mercury or in a Crookes radiometer we see moving mass, even in hydrolysis. We see mass movent in the form of circulation.

So circulation in fluids is there as so called charged mass be,gins to exhibit motion . If movement of charged mass causes circulation then causation is screwed! It is easier to see that matter , when in motion is caused to spiral by a magnetic vortex, that is magnetic behaviour is either prior or o causative to circulating motion of matter!
If it is co causative there is no way to say that electric current generates magnetic behaviour!
If magnetic behaviour is prior, then electric behaviour can be established as a mode of magnetic behaviour that creates double layer charged objects in materiality.

• Magnet interacting ith a rotating plasma
• edited April 2017
Induction and double layers.

One of the cornerstones of electrostatics was charge separation by induction. The process was developed whereby a material or medium could be shown to have a net positive or negative charge and this was chieved by drawing off the concentrated opposite charge into a lager volume that could receive it.

Whatever charge was it behaved by simply stated rules : like repelled unlike attract.

However this rule became mid applied .
Firstly a so called neutral body developed charge by tribo electric means, but so did magnets ! Tribo magnetism was downplayed. . Paramagnetism and chat ging a glass rod were thought to be different, even though the behaviour was the same!

A magnet maintains its charge separation only in certain materials, in most cases a magnetic material returns to th neutral state as does a electrically induced material exhibiting charge separation..

Induction I'd the process of creating charge separation in material mediums. Such separations are dependent on material volumes, boundaries and permeability of the charge through. Boundary.

In magnetism paramagnetic materials permit the charge to flow and congregate at an impenetrable barrier . .thus rather than like repelling we see like gathering together under a repelling inducing force.

The natural tendency of like things is to expand to fill all available volume unles that room is occupied by like things, then they all crowd in together . Thus like does not repel so much as adjust to fill the available space.

Now unlike charges do attract each other, but not to fill the available space, rather it is to shrink or close up the available space. Under induction therefor we have charge separation by a charge that is expning to fill all pace and. Charge that is seeking to find its opposite so as to close up available space.

In free space we find these induction. Patterns occurring Bodies with differing charge potentials.

Because we have no real idea of charge except through measurement by magnetic behaviour it makes sense to define charge as induced by a magnetic potential within space.. Further we may define the phase, frequency and amplitude of that induced(" charge" or rather " charge" separation. "

Typically we do not see that a conductor is a double layer, nor that a battery and a capacitor are double layers..
The double layer we call a battery drives the establishment of a magnetic vortex around the conductor, but it is the internal vortex stores within the materials that interface in a way that allows the attractive force between unlike ends of the double layer to be neutralised. We see this in the Bloch wall around and within a magnet as a double layer, where the poles are the concentrations of the double layer.

There are many questions that arise because of the natural existence of double layers as magnetic phenomena at certain frequencies, but double layers can not be understood as static phenomena, they should be considered as dynamic states which exist and then combine to produce neutral regions of uniformity.( relative rest or relative uniform motion)

http://www.hit.ac.il/staff/fnfrucht/Articles/2006/2006fruchtman1.pdf

This technical paper indicates that plasma pressure is balanced by magnetic pressure not electrostatic pressure. In other words mass acceleration in a double layer is not detected. Material moves at a uniform rate in the double layer concordat with the observed magnetic field nd the observed plasma pressure. Electric charge and electric field effects are reduced to the spark discharge effects! Thus while we may claim an electic field is generating the movement of charged particles it is sufficient nd necessary to rely on th magnetic transport of mass counterbalancing a mechanical inherent pressure . Thus a rotational dynamic in a plasma is balanced against a magnetic dynamic resulting in an observed uniform ass transport in both directions.

An electrostatic fild is posited, but it's effect is not detected. It is assumed to be the source of the detected magnetic field around the ouble layer.
• The electrostatic force law says the force of repulsion or attraction for a pair of putative charges varies by an inverse square law. .however a static charge is of course a fiction. Charge distributions are inherently unstable. This was demonstrated by Earnshaw and is one of those flaws in electrostatic and electromagnetic theory brushed aside. Thompson tried several adaptations to the force laws to explain stable atomic structures and of course Boscovich had many theoretical force laws that solved the issues nd explained dynamically how double layers exist at all,scales.

It is truly a fractal phenomenon that demands dynamic charges.

However , since Örsted it has been known that dynamic charges are associated with magnetic fields / behaviours , and polarities if the charges move in a circular or ircuitous path. Actually Ampère spoke of circular motions in a material surface or interior producing small mobile magnetic polarities which were the electrodynamic equivalent of a current in a wire. Thus he conceived of a magnetic current made up of dynamic "electrostatic " charges which of course is an oxymoron. So he coined the word electrodynamic to label the quantities.

Biot and Savot simply defined a square magnetic set of vectors as generated by an electric current element. That was never properly investigated but simply accepted as a mathematical necessity.

Later when Thompsons "electron" was announced , the current element was treated as a cloud of drifting electrons , again inexplicably! Much later electron " spin' and angular momentum of electrons within atoms were mathematically described as magnetic dipole moments , a composition of Biot- Savot reasoning and Ampères. The electromagnetic entity or quantity called a dipole moment is fundamental to electrodynamic theory. And essentially replaces a particle description by a complex vector dynamic, consisting of a circular vector and a normal vector to the circle plane.

So we have in principle an electromagnetic current as the basis of our theory of electric behaviours, but predicated on a dynamic charge generating a magnetic dipole.

We can not confirm this to be a true description only that it makes possible an elaborate mathematical theory for electromagnetic Radiation both in space and in materials used as conductors/ inductor.

The theory is simplified if a pure magnetron is assumed, for then a magneto static description becomes a magneto dynamic one in which mplitude frequency nd Phase become important characteristics.

The double layer observation becomes a natural dynamic stability structure where the two types of magnetron circulate bout each other before combining not in annihilation but a nodal null sum.

The fundamental dynamics in space , whichever way you cut it do not support a static theory of electric charge as fundamental, while a magnetostatic charge is feasible only as a standing wave phenomenon in a magneto dynamic scenario. And of course dynamic magnets are observed to generate so called electric currents in antennae.

Electric currents have never been observed but physical motion of charge carrying materials have shown that charge induction can be mechanically transported from place to place with well documented so called electrostatic effects as charge is unstably compressed into differing double layers. The magnetic behaviour associated with charge movement is just not equivalent to the putative current in a wire scenario, because the charge is apparently not transported " fast" enough mechanically to produce a magnet effect!

The problems this charge velocity mismatch causes are obviated by starting with a dynamic magnetron pair generating constructive and destructive interference patterns which we call magnetic behaviour and eventually electric, then lradio,light and onwards up the electromagnetic spectrum. Double layers then naturally appear as dynamic stability structures at certain frequencies.