It would appear that Webers generalised force law for electric charge is a differential form called a MacCauley expansion near the origin, or a Taylor differential expansion . Both these refer to small perturbations( oscillations) about the origin, but Taylors in particular related to stable vortex forms in a rotating reference frame it is of interest the Weber derived a ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic charge that is called the permittivity of free space, which Maxwell derived, and used in an inverse square rooted product Between mu and epsilon http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00033795900200098 http://physics.info/em-waves/

The ratio between the magnetic forces one mased by voltaic discharge the other induced by tribo magnetic induction is of interest in its interpretation

These proportions in this field are not constants , but characteristics of certain synthetic structures of materiality. The materiality of free space unfortunately is assumed to be a non material environment! . Thus " empty" space is supposedly the standard, but philosophically that is a hard conception to justify.

In reality we utilise a system of normalised approximations, adjusting the measures as and when technology and technological outcomes require it.

The frequency of permeability constants indicates that magnetic or mased induction is in fact a lower frequency force than a tribo electric force!

Thus I concluded that magnetic behaviour is more fundamental and ponder able than electric behaviour, but that electric behaviour is a modality of magnetic behaviour at extremely high frequency proportions.

The observable fact that simple tribo magnetic actions generate "electricity "demonstrates a frequency distribution effect that implies high numbers of oscillators that transmit the frequency changes measured . Previously I spoke about the relationship between frequency and charge. In fact I suggested that the frequency is really a definition of charge.

The idea that frequency was really a definition of charge seems like a logical conclusion to the assessment of what actual changes were observable.

The amplitude of the charge if it is a frequency is what needed to be explained. But this amplitude can now be explained in terms of MASING . The concept of missing device by Townsend is one that took a while to take hold. But the actual appearance of microwaves and also light amplification cannot be denied.

Racing is a very powerful example of interference between waves or rotational disturbances. This is also called in the literature the principle of superposition. Interference and superposition are the same ideas expressed in different fields of study. In the quantum world the superposition of many states seems to be not understood as simple interference of those states. When the states are resolved the interference pattern then also dissolves into its component parts.

The probability measure which is used in quantum mechanics is also a version of the rotational dynamics of the situation. Not many people realise that DeMoivre used the sine function and all its values to develop a system of statistical or probability measure.

There is a analogous relationship between the development of the logarithm of signs and the natural only. And criticisms. Both are based on a kind of binomial series expansion of different terms. The logarithm of sines is based on (1-1/n)^n and the exponential logarithms are based on (1+ 1/n)^n. DeMoivre used both to develop his probability measure theory.

It is of extreme interest that Sir Roger Cotes was about to explain how the logarithmic series expansion was a better gravitational formulation especially when it was a complex lineal combination of Cosine and sine terms .

But not only did that open up a better way to tackle fluid dynamics it gave a way to measure magnetic and electric modes of force. This is of course my opinion not Cotes.

Supposing that e the ratio between the electric field measure and the mass measure is a constant of acceleration. What type of acceleration is it observed to be? Observations indicate that a mased beam is evident , due to fortunate experimental set up . This implies an oscillatory acceleration theoretically determined by the cavity dimensions for the translation and reflection of the observed beam.

In addition the beam is shown to deflect in both electric and magnetic potential regions , indicating a curvilineal force line consistent with trichoidally dynamic surfaces.

I thus suggest that the normalised electron ratio is a quantum frequency , and that the more electrons measured the higher the frequency of the emission observed. Thus a huge discharge is a high frequency event with a range of frequencies, and the amplitude of the event is a measure of the MASING effect of the accelerative frequency , that is an angular accelerative force rotates materiality to extreme angular velocities .

The coherent interference of these accelerated angular states produces mased transmissions while a break or a spherical surface produces wildly variable sparks of mased transmissions

The viscosity of the medium through which these dual transmissions propagate determines the kind of dynamic arcs visible in such discharges.

Higher viscositirs tend to have path discharges, lower tend to have glow discharges.

I now revise my speculation of e as an accelerative constant that is frequency related. E as a unit of frequency , that is a variable acceleration that is oscillatory is not additive in terms of direct frequency quanta . So 2 e is not twice the frequency ie twice the acceleration magnitude. The acceleration is a proportion not an identity. The proportion is characteristic of the material circumstances . Increasing the electric pressure increases the ratio only if the mass moved remains constant. . Equally reducing the mass moved increases the ratio if the electric pressure remains constant.

So the electric acceleration constant when summed simply is a measure of the total pressure and total mass moved in the system This is a measure of the power of the system, if it is time rated or time stepped The variation in this total over time is a measure of the variation in pressure / mass coupling over time and it may also have a frequency or cyclicity that is time dependent not circumstance dependent.

Units of measure typically are uninteresting fractal scales or scalard. Their monotonous uniformity enables philosophers to distinguish dynamic variations in measured objects. The measured objects however must differ from the material or medium used to implement the fractal scale that is the Metron material. To avoid this issue metrons are devised as ratios of some pretty constant materials or processes, and statistically normalised . While this sounds secure it is clearly not absolute! Absolute values are decreed by fiat, and revised every so often, by decree!

The Planck constant is so small that it is hardly affected by anything but it too is not absolute except by decree. It is the limit of our instrumentation alongside the associated calculus to resolve ant distinction . It is so far below what we are currently technologically able to machine or manufacture that we are not worried about the accuracy of its calculated value. . We have to remember that it is a quantised ratio written as a decimal fraction

I might add that in discussing Newtons definitions in his Principles for Astrologersthe discussion about a right line is often overlooked.

Such a line is universally accepted as. Rectilineal one, but without regard to the circle arcs that define it. The Greek in the Stoikeia refers to a good , sound or true line , from which the pythagoreans selected the the dual pointed line as the good one , and as the basis for Rectilineal lines in basic constructions using the circular arc, also considered a good line but not Rectilineal.

The concept of parallel, tangent and other Rectilineal properties go along with the notion of a right line.

Thus to declare that in space all motion is in a straight line unless a force acts on the moving body is misleading. The concept of inertia is defined in this way by principles of Mechanics for utilitarian reasons. On the celestial scale orbits are considered as inertial motions and straight lines only appear as resolved instantaneous components of that inertial motion , whose curvature is established by Newton is inviolate or absolute at any scale! In this way he sets out an inductive order which allows calculus principles to be applied to finer nd finer time steps using ultimately right lines as tangents to a curvilineal line. .

We are thus I'll served by considering straight lines as fundamentally general motions, whereas it is clear that curvilineal lines are general and too innumerable to classify. It is in this vein that Trochoids become extremely important in generalising our measurements of curvilineal motions and lines.

While DesCartes and. Wallis are rightly credited with emphasising the importance of fixed axes for quantifying spaciometric forms, it was in fact a standard Pythagorean praxis to represent all space as mosaic forms , and indeed Apollonius freely used mosaics relevant to each form. It was by standardising the mosaic that DesCartes and Wallis gined much admiration .

If e is the constant of acceleration for a given mass moved and a given electric pressure or voltage which has a frequency in the green spectral range what about the other spectral ranges measured? In those cases the mass moved becomes less and less as the frequency increases, thus the accelerative constant gets larger as the frequency increases. The constants for these minute masses could easily be renamed a la electron as photons! But I won't go there : I choose spectrons! Of which the electron is just one ratio.

As we go down into the red and far Infra red the mass moved becomes significantly larger , and these spectrons may be associated with so called anions and nucleonsv devoid of the electrons and higher spectrons.

Really I mean to say the frequencies within a material resolve by resonance into coherent MASING regions .with pulse frequencies characteristic of their colour.

The energy of a battery is explored, but the electron explanation is used to depict what the model for action is.

The magnetic current explanation seems not appropriate until you realise that. Frequency and amplitude are important factors. Using a highly viscous medium allows higher frequencies to be supported by the materials, higher pressure cycles with less thermal dissipation .

The solid state batteries like semiconductor materials generate electrical behaviour by standing wave behaviours with variable phases. It is hard to conceive of wandering ions in a solid material, so electrons and holes are generally used to depict this electric behaviour. But I posit that electrons, originally observed in plasma discharge tubes form plasma tubes which we call sparks, in which material from the Anode and cathode intertwine. These "plasma ions " are easier to conceive be ause they are within the fluid medium category.

However, what behaviour can be accommodated by all media? The answer is rotational behaviour , and that is the indicator that magnetic current lies at the heart of battery design and behaviour.. Magnetic oscillations in the radio frequency range .

Another video collection of some of the amazing work of fractal artists. When researchers combined at Fractalforums.com to uncover the formulations, camera techniques, surface plot constraints ecessary to visualise the 3d Mandelbrot, they soon found they had created the most amazing tool to express visually certain fractally patterns , transformations and animations of the interaction of simple formulations of motion laws, or point iteration constraints. Combined with incredible surface overlay technology and distance estimation software, lighting angle software etc, the amazing experiences above we're painstakingly created.

What it means is that trochoidally dynamic points can be perceived as surfaces , and those perceived surfaces can transform in amazing , unexpected ways, while still appearing coherently solid, liquid or plasmic . Thus at one level we perceive surfaces but at a deeper level, the motion of points identify Force and pressure behaviours , which as surfaces appear invisible to the perception but whose effects are observable through the other senses.

This is how I came to an appreciation of the explanatory power of rotational dynamics and began a deep search for a solid or sound physical phenomenon that could lift it out of abstract theoretical mathematics.

Magnetic behaviour and magnetic current has been the soundest way forward in my experience , making sense of Grassmanns and Hamiltons visions of a subtle explanatory philosophy that gives profound insight, and better still, trustworthy expertise into the workings of Natural Powers.

How high frequency rotational dynamics creates ephemeral, spectral dynamic forms in lower frequency Aethers , or how magnetic behaviour at a high frequency can create persistent standing wave patterns axially in space of a lower frequency dynamic

Lol! I never understood e,z,w particles of force before, but now understand that they are ratios of electric to mass moved " acceleration" constants ( !) like the gravitational constant .

The idea of dimensions precedes the work of Einstein and his colleagues. Because in the early 20th century young scientists want to break with the old and establish themselves as the new paradigm They paid little attention to the history of the natural philosophy or their craft. We might trace Dey mentions back to the Greek philosophers such as Euclid and Eudoxus, where in particular the use of the idea of a whole or in Aris Morley meant that there were certain distinctions between certain quantities or quanta . Modern times NJ Wildberger goes into this in great detail in his development of the integral linear algebra

The main point of NJ wildbergers ideas is that once you distinguish things into M sets or make a distinction between groups of things when you introduce was called incommensurability. This idea of incommensurability goes back to the ideas of the Pythagorean school. And this incommensurable is of such in general and wide application that there is plenty of things that it can be applied to

That's the idea of incommensurability is applied to the idea of measuring, and in measuring then the idea of di-mesions comes into place. Dimension is just a Latin for the Greek idea that we can split measurement up by incommensurability of the action

Orientation is one of the most fundamental ideas that is involved in die mentions. We encode this aspect of orientation in the circle. Using that para dime it becomes clear that there are many. There are many dimensions because there are many orientations in which we can do the act of measuring. dimensions which we could use in measurin. later Gauss and is international colleagues use the same idea of incommensurability and that's also the idea of the severality of measurement to express the dimensions that are used in the SI units .

The ideabofba mathesis of imaginary numbers goes back to Bombelli , but it is Newton and his close scholars Cotes and DeMoivre who raise it into a fascinating quantity of measure. , and Euler who presents it in its esteemable format, which Gauss ratifies. Here, the circular dimensions beyond the orthogonal and bisected , and qintesectected arcs of a circle are algebraically formalised.

However it was Grassmann in my opinion who first losed the bonds to a 3 dimensional basis for measuring 3dsoace or the Raum . He formally declares that we should make use of n-dimensions wherever appropriate, and that these dimensions are distinguished by orientation in the spherical surface. . They may or may not be reducible to 3 depending on what processes are being encoded.

We have not even got onto curvilineal dimensions!!

I have to point out that this programme is modern propaganda and myth making for the latest mathematical model of fluid dynamics. Here th mechanical string , a highly viscous fast relaxation time material is replaced by a work function or energy description ? While this allows analogies to be drawn with similar work function descriptions it does not make the actual interpretations identical! The synthesis of many similarly valued and behaviourally equivalent systems is so varied as to be beyond reasonable accounting for.

All we can say is our perception is so limited that these interpretations may be happening! That is why experimental, pragmatic, utilitarian models are crucial to our technological advancement.

The rotational dynamic I propose is in a similar position theoretically, but I tie it in every which way I can to magnetic behaviour. The reason is I want it to stand or fall by observables .

The hype and jargon about dimensions and laws of nature have to be radically and rigorously pruned to actual observable definitions and agreed common judgements. Pragmatic models must be derivable from any useful theory.

One of the difficulties of explaining the behaviour of Magnetism and also of electricity is that like poles repel and that unlike poles attract while this behaviour can be mimicked by using gears is still unsatisfactory that there is no simple explanation.

The mimicking of this behaviour by Gears has lead to several difficulties. The first one is the fact that the gears have to operate in counter rotation. This leads to the issue that poles which occur clearly in different regions of the body require four counter rotations. This means that any substance that is removed by the gear action has to pass through a substance that is moving in the opposite direction and has to be attracted to the counter rotations that make it possible to move. This implies that there are two substances that are completely different in terms of the gear action on. Space or the substance with the nature of space is made up of two different substances distinguished by the gear action.

We may alternatively think of two forces one implosive any other explosive and regard these not as fundamental forces but as effects of the action of the substances of space. That is the two substances like the magnetron idea where we have a positive magnetron and the negative magnetron, these two substances together form an implosion or implosive force.

This behaviour is a keen to the addition and subtraction of numbers or of quantities. This has always been noted and this is why we use the symbols plus and minus. But in terms of a physical action this is the same as the interference of a disturbance. Especially if an object moves in one particular direction when it can be counteracted by movement in the exact opposite direction. This is what we mean by addition and subtraction of quantities. If the quantity is explosive this means that it is actually adding up with other quantities which are moving either in the same direction or not in the opposite direction. Whereas quantities which are implosive means that one quantity is moving in one direction and the other quantity is moving in the exact opposite direction. Thus when objects collide they actually are involved in an inplosive event. What we see coming out of an implosive event are explosive reactants. The explosive reactants are explosive simply because they do not fulfil the "opposite rule", so they do not cancel the spatial motion of one another.

Implosion in this scenario does not annihilate, but rather it results in "relative rest" .

The nature of this relative rest is not that the idea of a force or pressure becomes zero, but rather that it becomes potential. That potential may store up as frequency distribution, or as amplitude distribution or both. It is amplitude distribution that leads to fractures in viscous materials with a short relaxation time . Those with high relaxation times distort form noticeably, and release their stores of motion slowly. Those with short relaxation times release their motion explosively . The storage of frequency is related to relaxation time in that higher frequencies store better in materials with low relaxation times. Providing the amplitude is not growing , these materials can absorb huge frequency ranges and appear to be at " relative rest"

Implosion thus is an effect of storing amplitude and frequency incoherently. Once amplitude and frequency or either cohere then explosive or expansive action occurs as a superposition or summation of the cohering disturbances in a medium which must be capable of expressing opposite modes of spatial motion.

The Idea of opposite motion requires not just an opposing orientation of motion, but also an opposing phase in the time cycle of any motion, because curvilineal motion is in my opinion the general motion, not straight line translations.thus frequency, amplitude and phase are fundamental space- time characteristics of explosive and implosive effects of material " affinities" or as we say nowadays "Interaction".

The notion of pressure is the notion of existence of these 2 motions of space, with vacuum bei g the relative rest of these motions , a cohering of exactly opposite spatial motions of space materiality ( fluid aether, atomic particles, undefined energy conceptions, probabilistic fluid notions etc)

Dimensions then are clearly orientations in which we measure these spatially opposite motions. In a complex motion certain "opposite" motions will cancel in a given orientation, leaving those that are not in that orientation expressed as pressures or explosive motion.

Rhythmical pumping motions can create " vacuums' (coherent opposing motions), or high pressure MASING ( coherent summative motions , that are frequency and phase specific leading to amplitude growth as the displacements interact . In general these displacements are curvilineal, that is to say " magnetic" in behaviour and nature.

Russ mentions the detail called a cold junction. Volta in his investigations into electric cell materials noted how the different metals had differing atmospheres which when in contact produced an electric sensation( he tested it by his tongue!) . He also knew from his experience of building electroscopes that polished clean surfaces produced greater spark potential. Oxidation of surfaces creates a thin film that diminishes the electric effect, at the same time as isolating the metals from cold welding or cold melding together.

Without heat or intense temperature the metal " ions" flow into and intermingle with one another! The solidity or viscosity of metals is only apparent!

When Weber determined an equation to describe the effect of both electrons and ions moving in a conductor he was overruled. It was stated that the lattice ions did not move! Later it was found that cold welding does happen, meaning the early idea that both ions and electrons move was not incorrect! As usual, nobody cares enough to revise the prevailing dogma.

However, it is still unsatisfactory to conceive of particles of a highly viscous material as drifting in an empty space! In fluids the whole fluid moves in what we call a current, but a current in solids is barely conceivable! Yet we know tar behaves in this insane way , dripping over thousands of days!

However better than the "current" notion is the notion of travelling disturbances in materiality . It is these rotational disturbances that Maxwell considered as stress waves, or variable tension phenomena . And within these he found logical reason to believe a luminiferous aether and a magnetic aether existed both capable of supporting rotational dynamics and stress. It is the obscuring of phase, amplitude and frequency (Tesla) in rotation that makes it hard to see relative motions within a standing wave structure! That is to see fluidity within otherwise rigid structure!

This fluidity is on a differing time scale, so that the lattice relative to the higher frequency differing phase phenomena may appear absolutely rigid, but in fact it may have a slow rotational cycle of its own.

In fact it is Boscovich's theory of forces that explores these levels of rotational interaction. And the work of Benoit Mandelbrot that gives form to these dynamic interactions.

You will note that "current " is synonymous with the observable " spark" in these high voltage demonstrations. It has always been tempting to associate a spark with a flow of current. However the brief cymatic demonstration of the effect of high voltage on olivine in water reveals a better apprehension of a " spark". The rotational dynamic that one sees on a cymatic plate exists in 3d where it expresses as a structure we call a spark. That structure is associated with the structure in materiality. So in a fluid, where structure is unstable, a filamentary pattern develops as the rotational dynamics line up, but in a viscous material, depending on relaxation time the vibration pattern will spread and interfere and react, . Thus what appears to be a current would be the coupling of a rotational disturbance with its surrounding materiality. This takes the structure of a filament in general in which the disturbance can be observed to come from both ends or opposite boundaries of a region of distinct materiality. These cymatic structures express reflection, refraction and diffraction of the disturbance and phase polarisation interference.

Thus a spark is a particular mode of these phase, frequency and amplitude disturbances in the magnetic structure in space.

Coronal holes and indeed poles demonstrate the long range filamentation that occurs in the magnetic structures in space, and a plasma ball demonstrates this clearly.

We are used to using the idea of grounding in electric circuitry but in fact this is a phenomenon of magnetic susceptibility , with the wide range of absorption that is characterised by the permeability notion of a material. Susceptibility and thus permeability are frequency , phase and amplitude dependent within any specific materiality.

The absorption and storage of this magnetic behaviour will lead to MASING effects which generally we note as paramagnetism , diamagnetism and then polar or polarised discharges within the materials at differing frequencies and amplitudes and phases.

Batteries and capacitors are two modes of the same technology. It is assumed that a current flows between them, but it is better to think of a MASING wave that pumps coherence into and around a wave guide material, which has reflective end points. When the power is sufficient to overcome the reflective property of an end then a mased spark or beam is guided out by the inductor/ conductor.

We might reference that spark as "energy" but it is clearly only the frequency and amplitude and phases in the visible range that we see. We know there are emissions in other frequency ranges, including that we commonly call electricity, but also accompanying it is an emission we call magnetic behaviour.

It makes sense to think of it all as different modes of magnetic behaviour.

## Comments

it is of interest the Weber derived a ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic charge that is called the permittivity of free space, which Maxwell derived, and used in an inverse square rooted product Between mu and epsilon

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00033795900200098

http://physics.info/em-waves/

The ratio between the magnetic forces one mased by voltaic discharge the other induced by tribo magnetic induction is of interest in its interpretation

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permittivity

The permittivity is a frequency dependent constant! Thus the permeability is. Frequency dependent constant.

These proportions in this field are not constants , but characteristics of certain synthetic structures of materiality. The materiality of free space unfortunately is assumed to be a non material environment! . Thus " empty" space is supposedly the standard, but philosophically that is a hard conception to justify.

In reality we utilise a system of normalised approximations, adjusting the measures as and when technology and technological outcomes require it.

The frequency of permeability constants indicates that magnetic or mased induction is in fact a lower frequency force than a tribo electric force!

Thus I concluded that magnetic behaviour is more fundamental and ponder able than electric behaviour, but that electric behaviour is a modality of magnetic behaviour at extremely high frequency proportions.

The observable fact that simple tribo magnetic actions generate "electricity "demonstrates a frequency distribution effect that implies high numbers of oscillators that transmit the frequency changes measured .

Previously I spoke about the relationship between frequency and charge. In fact I suggested that the frequency is really a definition of charge.

The idea that frequency was really a definition of charge seems like a logical conclusion to the assessment of what actual changes were observable.

The amplitude of the charge if it is a frequency is what needed to be explained. But this amplitude can now be explained in terms of MASING . The concept of missing device by Townsend is one that took a while to take hold. But the actual appearance of microwaves and also light amplification cannot be denied.

Racing is a very powerful example of interference between waves or rotational disturbances. This is also called in the literature the principle of superposition. Interference and superposition are the same ideas expressed in different fields of study. In the quantum world the superposition of many states seems to be not understood as simple interference of those states. When the states are resolved the interference pattern then also dissolves into its component parts.

The probability measure which is used in quantum mechanics is also a version of the rotational dynamics of the situation. Not many people realise that DeMoivre used the sine function and all its values to develop a system of statistical or probability measure.

There is a analogous relationship between the development of the logarithm of signs and the natural only. And criticisms. Both are based on a kind of binomial series expansion of different terms. The logarithm of sines is based on (1-1/n)^n and the exponential logarithms are based on (1+ 1/n)^n.

DeMoivre used both to develop his probability measure theory.

It is of extreme interest that Sir Roger Cotes was about to explain how the logarithmic series expansion was a better gravitational formulation especially when it was a complex lineal combination of Cosine and sine terms .

But not only did that open up a better way to tackle fluid dynamics it gave a way to measure magnetic and electric modes of force.

This is of course my opinion not Cotes.

Observations indicate that a mased beam is evident , due to fortunate experimental set up . This implies an oscillatory acceleration theoretically determined by the cavity dimensions for the translation and reflection of the observed beam.

In addition the beam is shown to deflect in both electric and magnetic potential regions , indicating a curvilineal force line consistent with trichoidally dynamic surfaces.

I thus suggest that the normalised electron ratio is a quantum frequency , and that the more electrons measured the higher the frequency of the emission observed.

Thus a huge discharge is a high frequency event with a range of frequencies, and the amplitude of the event is a measure of the MASING effect of the accelerative frequency , that is an angular accelerative force rotates materiality to extreme angular velocities .

The coherent interference of these accelerated angular states produces mased transmissions while a break or a spherical surface produces wildly variable sparks of mased transmissions

The viscosity of the medium through which these dual transmissions propagate determines the kind of dynamic arcs visible in such discharges.

Higher viscositirs tend to have path discharges, lower tend to have glow discharges.

So the external power affecting the sun could be magnetic pressure vibrations.

So the electric acceleration constant when summed simply is a measure of the total pressure and total mass moved in the system

This is a measure of the power of the system, if it is time rated or time stepped

The variation in this total over time is a measure of the variation in pressure / mass coupling over time and it may also have a frequency or cyclicity that is time dependent not circumstance dependent.

http://ppp.unipv.it/Collana/Pages/Libri/Saggi/Volta and the History of Electricity/V&H Sect3/V&H 267-286.pdf

What were these units of measure!

Units of measure typically are uninteresting fractal scales or scalard. Their monotonous uniformity enables philosophers to distinguish dynamic variations in measured objects. The measured objects however must differ from the material or medium used to implement the fractal scale that is the Metron material.

To avoid this issue metrons are devised as ratios of some pretty constant materials or processes, and statistically normalised .

While this sounds secure it is clearly not absolute! Absolute values are decreed by fiat, and revised every so often, by decree!

The Planck constant is so small that it is hardly affected by anything but it too is not absolute except by decree. It is the limit of our instrumentation alongside the associated calculus to resolve ant distinction . It is so far below what we are currently technologically able to machine or manufacture that we are not worried about the accuracy of its calculated value. . We have to remember that it is a quantised ratio written as a decimal fraction

I might add that in discussing Newtons definitions in his Principles for Astrologersthe discussion about a right line is often overlooked.

Such a line is universally accepted as. Rectilineal one, but without regard to the circle arcs that define it. The Greek in the Stoikeia refers to a good , sound or true line , from which the pythagoreans selected the the dual pointed line as the good one , and as the basis for Rectilineal lines in basic constructions using the circular arc, also considered a good line but not Rectilineal.

The concept of parallel, tangent and other Rectilineal properties go along with the notion of a right line.

Thus to declare that in space all motion is in a straight line unless a force acts on the moving body is misleading. The concept of inertia is defined in this way by principles of Mechanics for utilitarian reasons. On the celestial scale orbits are considered as inertial motions and straight lines only appear as resolved instantaneous components of that inertial motion , whose curvature is established by Newton is inviolate or absolute at any scale! In this way he sets out an inductive order which allows calculus principles to be applied to finer nd finer time steps using ultimately right lines as tangents to a curvilineal line. .

We are thus I'll served by considering straight lines as fundamentally general motions, whereas it is clear that curvilineal lines are general and too innumerable to classify. It is in this vein that Trochoids become extremely important in generalising our measurements of curvilineal motions and lines.

While DesCartes and. Wallis are rightly credited with emphasising the importance of fixed axes for quantifying spaciometric forms, it was in fact a standard Pythagorean praxis to represent all space as mosaic forms , and indeed Apollonius freely used mosaics relevant to each form. It was by standardising the mosaic that DesCartes and Wallis gined much admiration .

The constants for these minute masses could easily be renamed a la electron as photons! But I won't go there : I choose spectrons! Of which the electron is just one ratio.

As we go down into the red and far Infra red the mass moved becomes significantly larger , and these spectrons may be associated with so called anions and nucleonsv devoid of the electrons and higher spectrons.

Really I mean to say the frequencies within a material resolve by resonance into coherent MASING regions .with pulse frequencies characteristic of their colour.

Interesting point about stability or equilibrium defining the eventual pattern or form, but dynamically. Panta Rhei xx

The energy of a battery is explored, but the electron explanation is used to depict what the model for action is.

The magnetic current explanation seems not appropriate until you realise that. Frequency and amplitude are important factors. Using a highly viscous medium allows higher frequencies to be supported by the materials, higher pressure cycles with less thermal dissipation .

The solid state batteries like semiconductor materials generate electrical behaviour by standing wave behaviours with variable phases. It is hard to conceive of wandering ions in a solid material, so electrons and holes are generally used to depict this electric behaviour. But I posit that electrons, originally observed in plasma discharge tubes form plasma tubes which we call sparks, in which material from the Anode and cathode intertwine. These "plasma ions " are easier to conceive be ause they are within the fluid medium category.

However, what behaviour can be accommodated by all media? The answer is rotational behaviour , and that is the indicator that magnetic current lies at the heart of battery design and behaviour.. Magnetic oscillations in the radio frequency range .

Another video collection of some of the amazing work of fractal artists.

When researchers combined at Fractalforums.com to uncover the formulations, camera techniques, surface plot constraints ecessary to visualise the 3d Mandelbrot, they soon found they had created the most amazing tool to express visually certain fractally patterns , transformations and animations of the interaction of simple formulations of motion laws, or point iteration constraints.

Combined with incredible surface overlay technology and distance estimation software, lighting angle software etc, the amazing experiences above we're painstakingly created.

What it means is that trochoidally dynamic points can be perceived as surfaces , and those perceived surfaces can transform in amazing , unexpected ways, while still appearing coherently solid, liquid or plasmic . Thus at one level we perceive surfaces but at a deeper level, the motion of points identify Force and pressure behaviours , which as surfaces appear invisible to the perception but whose effects are observable through the other senses.

This is how I came to an appreciation of the explanatory power of rotational dynamics and began a deep search for a solid or sound physical phenomenon that could lift it out of abstract theoretical mathematics.

Magnetic behaviour and magnetic current has been the soundest way forward in my experience , making sense of Grassmanns and Hamiltons visions of a subtle explanatory philosophy that gives profound insight, and better still, trustworthy expertise into the workings of Natural Powers.

How high frequency rotational dynamics creates ephemeral, spectral dynamic forms in lower frequency Aethers , or how magnetic behaviour at a high frequency can create persistent standing wave patterns axially in space of a lower frequency dynamic

Femtosecond plasma , trochoidally dynamic surfaces created by LASING magnetic currents

Lol! I never understood e,z,w particles of force before, but now understand that they are ratios of electric to mass moved " acceleration" constants ( !) like the gravitational constant .

The idea of dimensions precedes the work of Einstein and his colleagues.

Because in the early 20th century young scientists want to break with the old and establish themselves as the new paradigm They paid little attention to the history of the natural philosophy or their craft.

We might trace Dey mentions back to the Greek philosophers such as Euclid and Eudoxus, where in particular the use of the idea of a whole or in Aris Morley meant that there were certain distinctions between certain quantities or quanta . Modern times NJ Wildberger goes into this in great detail in his development of the integral linear algebra

The main point of NJ wildbergers ideas is that once you distinguish things into M sets or make a distinction between groups of things when you introduce was called incommensurability. This idea of incommensurability goes back to the ideas of the Pythagorean school. And this incommensurable is of such in general and wide application that there is plenty of things that it can be applied to

That's the idea of incommensurability is applied to the idea of measuring, and in measuring then the idea of di-mesions comes into place. Dimension is just a Latin for the Greek idea that we can split measurement up by incommensurability of the action

Orientation is one of the most fundamental ideas that is involved in die mentions. We encode this aspect of orientation in the circle. Using that para dime it becomes clear that there are many. There are many dimensions because there are many orientations in which we can do the act of measuring. dimensions which we could use in measurin. later Gauss and is international colleagues use the same idea of incommensurability and that's also the idea of the severality of measurement to express the dimensions that are used in the SI units .

The ideabofba mathesis of imaginary numbers goes back to Bombelli , but it is Newton and his close scholars Cotes and DeMoivre who raise it into a fascinating quantity of measure. , and Euler who presents it in its esteemable format, which Gauss ratifies. Here, the circular dimensions beyond the orthogonal and bisected , and qintesectected arcs of a circle are algebraically formalised.

However it was Grassmann in my opinion who first losed the bonds to a 3 dimensional basis for measuring 3dsoace or the Raum . He formally declares that we should make use of n-dimensions wherever appropriate, and that these dimensions are distinguished by orientation in the spherical surface. . They may or may not be reducible to 3 depending on what processes are being encoded.

We have not even got onto curvilineal dimensions!!

I have to point out that this programme is modern propaganda and myth making for the latest mathematical model of fluid dynamics. Here th mechanical string , a highly viscous fast relaxation time material is replaced by a work function or energy description ? While this allows analogies to be drawn with similar work function descriptions it does not make the actual interpretations identical! The synthesis of many similarly valued and behaviourally equivalent systems is so varied as to be beyond reasonable accounting for.

All we can say is our perception is so limited that these interpretations may be happening! That is why experimental, pragmatic, utilitarian models are crucial to our technological advancement.

The rotational dynamic I propose is in a similar position theoretically, but I tie it in every which way I can to magnetic behaviour. The reason is I want it to stand or fall by observables .

The hype and jargon about dimensions and laws of nature have to be radically and rigorously pruned to actual observable definitions and agreed common judgements. Pragmatic models must be derivable from any useful theory.

The mimicking of this behaviour by Gears has lead to several difficulties. The first one is the fact that the gears have to operate in counter rotation. This leads to the issue that poles which occur clearly in different regions of the body require four counter rotations. This means that any substance that is removed by the gear action has to pass through a substance that is moving in the opposite direction and has to be attracted to the counter rotations that make it possible to move. This implies that there are two substances that are completely different in terms of the gear action on. Space or the substance with the nature of space is made up of two different substances distinguished by the gear action.

We may alternatively think of two forces one implosive any other explosive and regard these not as fundamental forces but as effects of the action of the substances of space. That is the two substances like the magnetron idea where we have a positive magnetron and the negative magnetron, these two substances together form an implosion or implosive force.

This behaviour is a keen to the addition and subtraction of numbers or of quantities. This has always been noted and this is why we use the symbols plus and minus. But in terms of a physical action this is the same as the interference of a disturbance. Especially if an object moves in one particular direction when it can be counteracted by movement in the exact opposite direction. This is what we mean by addition and subtraction of quantities. If the quantity is explosive this means that it is actually adding up with other quantities which are moving either in the same direction or not in the opposite direction. Whereas quantities which are implosive means that one quantity is moving in one direction and the other quantity is moving in the exact opposite direction. Thus when objects collide they actually are involved in an inplosive event. What we see coming out of an implosive event are explosive reactants. The explosive reactants are explosive simply because they do not fulfil the "opposite rule", so they do not cancel the spatial motion of one another.

Implosion in this scenario does not annihilate, but rather it results in "relative rest" .

The nature of this relative rest is not that the idea of a force or pressure becomes zero, but rather that it becomes potential. That potential may store up as frequency distribution, or as amplitude distribution or both.

It is amplitude distribution that leads to fractures in viscous materials with a short relaxation time . Those with high relaxation times distort form noticeably, and release their stores of motion slowly. Those with short relaxation times release their motion explosively .

The storage of frequency is related to relaxation time in that higher frequencies store better in materials with low relaxation times. Providing the amplitude is not growing , these materials can absorb huge frequency ranges and appear to be at " relative rest"

Implosion thus is an effect of storing amplitude and frequency incoherently. Once amplitude and frequency or either cohere then explosive or expansive action occurs as a superposition or summation of the cohering disturbances in a medium which must be capable of expressing opposite modes of spatial motion.

The Idea of opposite motion requires not just an opposing orientation of motion, but also an opposing phase in the time cycle of any motion, because curvilineal motion is in my opinion the general motion, not straight line translations.thus frequency, amplitude and phase are fundamental space- time characteristics of explosive and implosive effects of material " affinities" or as we say nowadays "Interaction".

The notion of pressure is the notion of existence of these 2 motions of space, with vacuum bei g the relative rest of these motions , a cohering of exactly opposite spatial motions of space materiality ( fluid aether, atomic particles, undefined energy conceptions, probabilistic fluid notions etc)

Dimensions then are clearly orientations in which we measure these spatially opposite motions. In a complex motion certain "opposite" motions will cancel in a given orientation, leaving those that are not in that orientation expressed as pressures or explosive motion.

Rhythmical pumping motions can create " vacuums' (coherent opposing motions), or high pressure MASING ( coherent summative motions , that are frequency and phase specific leading to amplitude growth as the displacements interact . In general these displacements are curvilineal, that is to say " magnetic" in behaviour and nature.

Russ mentions the detail called a cold junction. Volta in his investigations into electric cell materials noted how the different metals had differing atmospheres which when in contact produced an electric sensation( he tested it by his tongue!) . He also knew from his experience of building electroscopes that polished clean surfaces produced greater spark potential. Oxidation of surfaces creates a thin film that diminishes the electric effect, at the same time as isolating the metals from cold welding or cold melding together.

Without heat or intense temperature the metal " ions" flow into and intermingle with one another! The solidity or viscosity of metals is only apparent!

When Weber determined an equation to describe the effect of both electrons and ions moving in a conductor he was overruled. It was stated that the lattice ions did not move! Later it was found that cold welding does happen, meaning the early idea that both ions and electrons move was not incorrect!

As usual, nobody cares enough to revise the prevailing dogma.

However, it is still unsatisfactory to conceive of particles of a highly viscous material as drifting in an empty space! In fluids the whole fluid moves in what we call a current, but a current in solids is barely conceivable! Yet we know tar behaves in this insane way , dripping over thousands of days!

However better than the "current" notion is the notion of travelling disturbances in materiality . It is these rotational disturbances that Maxwell considered as stress waves, or variable tension phenomena . And within these he found logical reason to believe a luminiferous aether and a magnetic aether existed both capable of supporting rotational dynamics and stress. It is the obscuring of phase, amplitude and frequency (Tesla) in rotation that makes it hard to see relative motions within a standing wave structure! That is to see fluidity within otherwise rigid structure!

This fluidity is on a differing time scale, so that the lattice relative to the higher frequency differing phase phenomena may appear absolutely rigid, but in fact it may have a slow rotational cycle of its own.

In fact it is Boscovich's theory of forces that explores these levels of rotational interaction. And the work of Benoit Mandelbrot that gives form to these dynamic interactions.

https://www.maximintegrated.com/en/app-notes/index.mvp/id/4026

You will note that "current " is synonymous with the observable " spark" in these high voltage demonstrations. It has always been tempting to associate a spark with a flow of current. However the brief cymatic demonstration of the effect of high voltage on olivine in water reveals a better apprehension of a " spark". The rotational dynamic that one sees on a cymatic plate exists in 3d where it expresses as a structure we call a spark. That structure is associated with the structure in materiality. So in a fluid, where structure is unstable, a filamentary pattern develops as the rotational dynamics line up, but in a viscous material, depending on relaxation time the vibration pattern will spread and interfere and react, .

Thus what appears to be a current would be the coupling of a rotational disturbance with its surrounding materiality. This takes the structure of a filament in general in which the disturbance can be observed to come from both ends or opposite boundaries of a region of distinct materiality.

These cymatic structures express reflection, refraction and diffraction of the disturbance and phase polarisation interference.

Thus a spark is a particular mode of these phase, frequency and amplitude disturbances in the magnetic structure in space.

Coronal holes and indeed poles demonstrate the long range filamentation that occurs in the magnetic structures in space, and a plasma ball demonstrates this clearly.

We are used to using the idea of grounding in electric circuitry but in fact this is a phenomenon of magnetic susceptibility , with the wide range of absorption that is characterised by the permeability notion of a material.

Susceptibility and thus permeability are frequency , phase and amplitude dependent within any specific materiality.

The absorption and storage of this magnetic behaviour will lead to MASING effects which generally we note as paramagnetism , diamagnetism and then polar or polarised discharges within the materials at differing frequencies and amplitudes and phases.

Batteries and capacitors are two modes of the same technology. It is assumed that a current flows between them, but it is better to think of a MASING wave that pumps coherence into and around a wave guide material, which has reflective end points. When the power is sufficient to overcome the reflective property of an end then a mased spark or beam is guided out by the inductor/ conductor.

We might reference that spark as "energy" but it is clearly only the frequency and amplitude and phases in the visible range that we see. We know there are emissions in other frequency ranges, including that we commonly call electricity, but also accompanying it is an emission we call magnetic behaviour.

It makes sense to think of it all as different modes of magnetic behaviour.