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# A sound basis to Rotational Dynamics

• http://magneticuniverse.com/discussion/comment/296/#Comment_296
The Tornado analogy discusses a complex dynamic that exhibits magnetic behaviours .
Now the interaction via Birkland currents with the interplanetary magnetic field of the sun is clearly implicated
• It occurred to me that we use lines of force as distinct from areas of pressure , whereas a thin high pressure sheet may dynamically extend itself mor along its perimeters than through its area, making it entirely feasible to view li es of force as lines of pressure , in which case we may expect a rapid lineal expansion to be accompanied by a slower areal expansion, concentrating the force effect along the perimeters while maintaining an areal pressure effect.

Not on,y is this explanatory of the bell shaped surfaces we see as shock waves, but it is more satisfactory to explain how Fotce lines act radially in a uniform pressure!

In fact the need for radial forces is no longer apparent, since curvilineal forces provide a better explanatory structure
• edited March 2017
Whenever a mathematical physicists draws a line of force , they are drawing a resultant reaction to some pressure. They typically do not draw a pressure line as a) they are not taught ton) they are directed to think in pressure gradients as lines of force, and they are taught to think of a for e acting across or within a surface as a shear force , with normal( orthogonal forces) acting into or out of a bodies surface, the fact that a pressure can be instantaneously represented by a line, and over longer periods by a curvilineal line that resolves into shear and Notmal forces is usually lost on physicists unless they are fluid dynamicity.

Thus a curvilineal pressure line may be drawn and this line represented by resolved normal and shear pressures , which in turn may be thought to generate normal and shearvReactive forces. Such reactive for es by default co Tain inertial constraints depicted as reactionary forces of a inverse nature! But with a proportional outcome in the Resultant Lineal combination.

In the Finite element method, these Lineal combinations are quite often, integrative and or differential terms. That is to say, the mathematician has broken the expected lineal forces into tiny elements, and summed a function that describes the path of these elements to recover the path ! Or the elements have been differentiated to reveal a function that calculates the microscopic behaviour either over a spaciometric form or a dynamic time step.

While the symbols strike dread into the heart, in fact they simply describe fractions that are combined either as parts of a topological form or parts of an evolving dynamic
The differential or integrative topology does notching more than calculate a number that is dimensioned, but the differential and integrative dynamics of Newton reveal an evolving topology . It is these types of differential dynamics fluid dynamics struggled to solve. The advent of computers made this easily possible , and the concurrent rise in display and colour technologies made these evolving forms visually realisable.

We can therefore now represent the pressure in a lineal form and the resultant reaction force in a lineal form, and then draw the evolving topology in a visuall surface form.

The reality of the visual form is dependent on, correct calculus and massive computational power.

But wait! Even the calculus can now be derived from very, ultra fast filming of a dynamic that is evolving. We do not need to derive arcane formulae instead we can derive the algorithms of differences which under lay the development of the li it calculus in the first place!

These differences are fractions, and so we sum fractions either over space or over time. The finite Element method enables us by these sums to calculate positions in a reference frame and draw a surface and make that surface fractal.

Fractal generators now do this so cleverly that we can draw scenes that are fantastic in every sense of the word, and they can draw evolving dynamics.

My job has been to apprehend what the resulting sculptures are, and how the apps can be used to depict a dynamically evolving outcome.

There are now engineering packages that can draw topologies and depict the resultant physical stresses applied pressures giving reactive forces in the topology induce. They rely on this numerical finite element method, which often uses a fractal mesh of elements drawn using curvilineal Bezier forms.

https://fenicsproject.org/
Johan Hoffman is Cleas Johnsons coauthor editor

• In trying to understand magnetic behaviour I have moved from simple vortices to complex trochoidal dynamics.
It is the assumption of simple straight line interactions that has led to many inaccuracies between the models and the observed behaviour.

The complexity is so great that it justifies statistical and probabilistic analysis and description, but not reek fiction of probability. The motions are so fast that we can not ordinarily comprehend them, but that does not mean we have to abandon continuous motion as a result of force and inertial interaction in a pressure field.

While gear models and other mechanical models may give Insight, no gear can operate at the speeds and pressures involved in a material sense.

The seemingly immaterial power of magnetic behaviour is due to the inertial pressures associated with curvilineal forces, making the smallest vi rational distinctions seem insignificant but believing their power within the equilibrium dynamic.

This power reveals itself in coherent, mased situations or so called chain reactions within regions , and the explosive or implosive events that accompany coherency are astonishing in the case of magnetic behaviour.

That curvilineal forces reveal pressure dynamics is not new, but that they exist as an equilibrium dynamic in all materiality is what I seek to demonstrate theoretically beyond any doubt.
• edited March 2017

A dynamic trochoidal model of hydrogen atom in Will Shank's Circa. It is sinuos because 3d is only apparent in Circa, by means of phase angle analogy and rotation of a choice of basis circles.
There is no surface calculated as in Tritirted so what you see is the relative movement of one point as it traces the Trochoid . . The motion appears spiky, but the frequencies are so high that the circle analogue breaks down into polygonal sides

There is a lot more trialand error to be done.

This version of the hydrogen gas molecule is not particularly exciting, but shows how a model of an atomic structure can be built in Circa using the spectral line frequencies for the elements. Because this is a single point trace of the Trochoid, no surfaces are depicted, and so limited trochoidal dynamic exploration of pressure surfaces is possible.
• The spectrum of hydrogen has a series of lines In the visible part of the spectrum. Usually 4 are identified although 8 are resolved in the literature and many more in the ifar nfrared region of the spectrum as measured in air.
Ref is the strongest , then green, then blue and finally indigo . The green and above are usually not as intense and not as clearly resolved.

From simple experiments with the Crookes radiometer we know that a green or greenish ray is identifiable immediately and that colour. Was forever associated with the electron by defining that colour as the electron , or beta ray.

Experiments with the anode in the radiometer revealed a red or reddish ray. This was called the Canal ray, because it appears distinctly at a cathode with holes through it, the holes are called canals.

It was decided that the cathode was negative and so electrons were cathode rays nd negatively charged. The electrons were pushed out of the cathode and attracted into the anode, but they were energetic enough to pass right through a small hole in the anode and travel to the glass envelope of the tube where they fluorescent a sensitive material

On the way, the story goes, they strip off electrons from the rarefied gas molecules leaving them positively charged and they migrate to the cathode where they combine.with electrons there. However they are energetic enough to pass through holes in the cathode and give off a redfish glow. The original radiometer was modified to allow this to be observed against the brighter cathode ray intensity.

When the spectral lines are produced, a high energy discharge is released in hydrogen gas. The discharge is repeated cyclically, so it has a pumping or MASING frequency and this is not considered relevant to the spectral line data, because that is oncerned only ith wavelength not frequency.

However , Frequency is very relevant as is the type of current used to generate the discharge.
Many of the unresolved spectral lines are due to this frequency impulse generating a core MASING effect in the discharge.

Now the behaviour of the discharge depends very much on the rarefaction of the gas, but the strong spectral lines appear best in pure hydrogen, while in air the wavelengths associated to hydrogen are more what we would feel as radiant heat!
These frequencies , above microwave, are not resolved because Astronomers have little use for them at present .

But let us think for a moment.
The anode ray is by the electron model free anions travelling to the cathode. Sometimes we do not see them at the cathode and that is because they radiate in the far infra red frequencies. The discharge is now understood to have a so called dark mode, where no visible ray is seen but of course heat, microwaves, radio waves etc are detectable.

In this model then, it is the nucleus nd the anion plasma that principally carries the lower frequencies.

Why then do we persist in assigning these frequencies to electron energy levels in the Bohr model?

It makes more sense to assign these to the nucleus, and indeed, in Nuclear magnetic Resonnce nobody quibbles about that assignment. It is the nucleus that resonates at radio frequencies and produces the distinctive magnetic precessional response to resonant frequencies.

When we speak of resonance we need to think of Mading, because the theory of Mading is all about pumping a material through resonance until. Coherent discharge is emitted through a reflective boundary.

When nuclei are do pumped by a radio frequency they emit a coherent but decaying response. This response is detected by the variation in magnetic field of uniform intensity.

Now what we are really saying here is that if a uniform field is established( an actual region or field in space in which our instruments measure no detectable variation) then introducing any material into that field disturbs its uniformity.
Then by pumping specific frequencies of magnetic variation into that field we can detect differences in those variations in the return signal.

We attribute this to the material in the field absorbing and then releasing the pumped in varieties in a known or predictable decay time. In other words the material is MASING at many frequencies from internal cavities ith in the matrial , these cavities are assumed to be at the size of nuclei.

In addition this Mading is occurring in a magnetic field, it is magnetic MASING . Of course the frequencies are not microwave frequencies, the MASING term is to identify the process of amplification by resonance of a magnetic variation!

The complexity of these field variations usually thought of magnetic moment processions is testament to the simplicity of our models, and the high likelihood of misdescription of the actual behaviours in ny event. And yet a simpler notion, that of pressure variation generating curvilineal force lines with a range of frequencies and spatial distributions provides a unifying language that enables a consistent approach to tackling the analysis of observed phenomena and a ingle universal power we may as well call magnetic behaviour.

The notions of magnetic moment,circuitous currents etc are ll instances of this one concept of curvilineal,force lines generated by a pervasive dynamic pressure variation capable of immense complexity as well as innocent simplicity.

It will of course be no surprise that I would assign the green wavelengths and above to so called electron frequencies and thus to a part of the magnetic field that has distinguished itself by this mode of oscillation .

In fact as we pass out of the visible light spectrum it is really questionable whether we can conceive of these behaviours and frequencies as being electrons at all!

Particle physics really struggles to explain materiality outside the visible spectrum, whereas magnetic behaviour at many frequencies and fractal spatial distributions with MASING speaks element ly to these issues in the variable pressure medium we have identified since Maxwell as the Electromagnetic aether.

At the Planvk level of this aether we find a consistent rotational basis of an endless number of phases that may combinatorially synthesise any fractally distributed region of space through resonance, coherence , parallel and circular transformations that determine amplitude and power, alongside frequencies of rotation we can only glimpse through proportionality and in the visible spectrum
Isvabpetmanent magnet producing ofbavstatic field?

What is a static field around a permanent magnet?

Therevarevreally no static dynamics! The standing rotational wave pattern induced into a permanent magnet has a frequency or frequency range, as the curie point shows, or a mechanical impulse that destroys the coherency of a standing wave pattern rotational or otherwise.

A plasma filament reacts immediately to a dielectric contact that increases capacitance or provides a capacitive route to the earth, but is hardly disturbed by a permanent magnet, bar.
However arrange the filament to travel through a magnetic field and the rotation in the field cn be seen in the deflection of the higher frequncy filament.

Permanent magnets are not as usefully controlled as electromagnets so research into their frequency s not of high priority. Suffice it to say that frequency distinguishes magnetic modes as we depict by the electro agnetic spectrum. The higher the frequency the more magnetic behaviour is termed electric
• edited March 2017
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1519708/
Here we see that magnetic fields have an associated frequency due to the generation frequency and transmission frequencies.

We have no intuitive problem when we see the material moving, but a permanent magnet does not appear to be moving. However when we place a magnet into a radio receiver and move it through we hear the frequency generated by a simple movement. The movement is not at any especial frequency. The frequency comes from the variation of the standing rotational wave pattern which is interacting with the receiver at an amazing frequency.

If the field was static in the sense of an immobile spatial region there would be no change in the interaction. But the field is reactive and dynamic, and even the slowest movement creates an impulse change.

The mechanical equivalent is that a rigid rugged surface forces a motile surface to vibrate like a needle in a record groove , however, the action at a instance belies this model. It is at the very least a dynamic interaction of dynamic variations in the space between the magnet and the receiver, but a straight forward model is a standing wave that is interfered with by another standing wave and the interference pattern resultant indicates the binaural beat interaction of the two .

Of course that is a simplistic description of the complexity, but a frequency should be found to be associated with a permanent magnet if the model is useful.

http://www.imrs.com/en/static-magnets-have-no-frequency.html
The confusing headline here is clarified in detail by the explanation of the existing model, in which to the contrary a dynamic frequency is apparent but unmeasured in the literature.

The Bohr magnetron is a lassical measure of this frequency, but then it is quantised, and drops out of the discussion as a discrete frequency.

Theoretically there is no static magnetic field, but causality of a magnetic field is by convention assigned to moving charge or moving static electric potential!!?

The confusion is apparent in that statement. Charge is a static quantity , but it has to move to generat a static magnetic field!!

I start with a dynamic magnetic oscillation from which I synthesise standing wave oscillations which at varying frequencies depict magnetic and then electric and then other radiant energies or absorptive energies.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_field
Views have changed as this article draws attention to, but static and moving charge still figures in most imaginations as explaining what is fundamentally only measurable.

And when it is measured it is found to be a dynamic rotational phenomenon. . Within that we should find the frequency range for the materiality we call ferromagnetic.
• One of the enduring mysteries is how opposites " attract" and likes " repel" in the context of magnetic behaviour in both its modalities.

The ver first thing is to recognise this as a pervasive rule of thumb! In unhindered systems, magnets process about each other into a stable bond and magnetic materials show susceptibilities to attract only or repel only.

In addition the case of free is ignored leading to anomalous conclusions.

Chemical affinity or reactivity exhibits the complexity of these combinatorial activities and the energies involved. The rule of thumb for magnets and electrics has pervaded into areas where it's simplicity no longer clarifies. Chemical affinity in terms of positive and negative electrostatics does not account for magnetic behaviours, and really has been superseded by more complex mathematical explanations. However rotational dynamics provides a simple general principle from which the rule of thumb about opposites attracting etc can be reliably derived.

Constructive nd destructive interference of curvilineal forces , and therefore their causative pressures provides a reliable rule.
There arevtwo types of pressure: expensive nd contractive , explosive or implosive. , push or pull. These two operate together always in some combinatorial ynthrsis with the general resultant of trochoidally dynamic surfaces or curvilineal forces.

When two pressures combine they do so summativrly. Thus an expansive pressure increases or a contractive pressure increases. . Opposite pressures cancel each other out. Where there is no pressure that region will be controlled by external pressures . It will either be invaded by one r the other types or both.

Clearly in magnetic behaviour both operate to draw and push objects together.

So the question is in general, why does an increase in contractive or implosive pressure not work for a simple description of polar behaviours in magnets?

The answer is we expect the implosive pressure to bring things together not repel.
This expectation alone should alert us to the omplexity of the polar behaviour.
From the interference principle we can expect an increased powerful effect when like pressures are brought together, but the curvilineal characteristic of the created forces means the environmental pressure is a contingent factor.

The implosive pressure drags in, if you like explosive pressure, so around every implosive region an expansive region is dancing and similarly for nnexpnsive region . This similarity in behavioural dynamic, makes the reaction the same poles similar.

The 2 increased rotational dynamics lead to even greater counteractive pressures intervening, whereas the zero sum leads to equilibrium which we call attraction .

Now I can go deeper and talk abou absorption and emissions as bein explicit outcomes of implosive and explosive pressures.
Under such a ombinations of pressures objects naturally and generally bind but actively equilibriating pressures naturally fly apart.
• edited March 2017
Charge and frequency are related because we see different colours associated to levels of charge. ,
What is charge if not a dynamic surface activity occurring at frequencies in the blue indigo range.

The photoelectric effect highlights this frequency aspect of charge, and the Planck frequency expression quantifies it.

Early philosophers measured charge by force, this idea of charge persists today and is quantified in the ratio of electric force to mass., the electron the electron has a greenish frequency and this is not accounted for in the electron concept. Instead, Bohr associated these frequencies with the electron using the quantum magnetron concept and the quantised electron orbit idea. Supposed electrons had to change from an electron to a massless photon with a frequency rather than a charge. But this photon adds charge to a system on absorption!

The idea of charge actually has to change. Rather than it being a unit of force it needs to considered as a frequency of rotation of trochoidal surfaces.

We can recover the quantified force from a frequency of many so called electrons, the rotational frequency of a trochoidally dynamic surface is proportional to the pressure acting through and in that surface. The pressure we are considering is a combinatorial sum of explosive and implosive pressure dynamics. We simplify this as curvilineal force lines which when summed add up to the force we associate with charge.

Now I do not subscribe to Bohrs electron orbit explanation of spectral lines, in fact I posit that spectral lines exhibit so called proton and neutron charge or rather frequency of rotation of trochoidal dynamic.

High frequency " electrons" are associated with x rays and gamma rays. The force or pressure of these rays is ignored because the absorption of these frequencies disassembles the material structure of most biological entities! However this force is equated to energy and thus thermodynamic representations are given of these rotational dynamics .

The picture or explanations become confused when the materials become plastic! Carve, frequency, force, pressure, temperature, radiation all are associated with a disassociated gas- like phase.

As you have just experienced the simplest elements that combine to give explanatory modems are pressures( Implosive, explosive) generating trochoidally dynamic surfaces whose frequencies determine form and function of regions of the aether(space-time) such as charge frequencies, associated charge forces, resultant attraction and repulsion, mercury level readings for pressure and so called temperature, and behaviour of flames and Plasmas.

And of course the compressive net dynamic we locally call gravity .

These forces come from the two fundamental powers I call dynamic pressures, which give rise to curvilineal force lines which I also call fundamental magnetic behaviour.

Note the frequencies and the dynamics . Be aware that as I changed the orientation of the central oscillating charged stamen the motion of the vortex bases and the connection to the outer capacitative sphere change to maintain the same dynamic. This indicates a ' gravitational' force orients the dynamic as well as the frequency and amplitude.
Note the colour of the snaking vorticular filaments, these are the "electron snakes" that connect the proton bases in the material .
• A simple rule of thumb helps to explain the complex behaviour of pressure. High pressure creates curvilineal Fotce into lower DENSTY.
The two distinctions , pressure and density are quantified in materiality . Thus: within a gravitational field , water presumed to be of uniform consistency in structure is balanced against a volume of material. The volume of water that archives this balance, once the inertial equilibrium is achieved , is the measure of the density of the material. .

Since no alchemical analysis is used in this measure the concept of density is a ratio of inertial equilibrium forces associated to volume . The ratio characterises the material vis a vis water, but is only distinct providing density of a material is unique.

Pressure on the other hand is a balance of motion of a fluid. When that fluid is deemed to be in rest equilibrium the external materials contiguous to it are said to be pressing upon it and to be establishing its equilibrium. .

By using the concept of an empty vacuum and a very narrow entrance to a sealed vessels making it reasonably unlikely that any other material may enter that vacuum. The vacuum is established by using a fluid such as mercury, to minimise temperature expansion effects within normal measuring conditions. The gravitational force on the mercury is then balanced against the gravitational force on the external medium . That force acting on the cross section of the entrance to the vacuum containing non dissociated mercury prevents the mercury from seeping out into the environmental medium, by two forces: the upper implosive vacuum force and the lower explosive medium force. Both these counteract the expected gravitational motion of the mercury, whose density is assumed to be constant at a constant temperature.

The depth of fluid medium required to achieve this external explosive force in water is found to be independent of the total mass of the water, and dependent only on the depth , but in fact measurement shows this not to be the case. There is an exponential increase in pressure with depth, precisely because density does influence the pressure! Larger masses of water, under gravity do become denser the greater the depth of the mass. So pressure has an exponential proportion to density. High pressures therefore accelerate test itemms or rather surface boundaries toward lower density, which of course is a proportion to lower pressures.

If a dense material is taken and spread into a greater volume , it's density by the normal measure decreases , this decrease is not consistent because the total mass remains the same and so the mass equivalent of water remains the same, but the greater surface area means that the air or other fluid medium now has a significant effect on the dynamics of the balance.

When the air is excluded in order to determine the density , the volume or area into which the material is spread plays hardly any part! ( barring or ruling out magnetic effects and vaporisation of water under vacuum conditions.

So the effect of density is not in the total mass but in the internal body pressures within materials , where the density of a material in a given region becomes equivalent to material concentration within that region, particularly in a fluid environment.

A highly dense material, judged by its bodily volume can be described as a highly concentrated region within a given region. As that material spreads it's constituency into a greater volume, the concentration of them ( against the local gravitational effect) in a fixed volume iminishes. , as it diminishes its effective pressure in the region diminishes making the environmental pressure the dominant one. This pressure accelerates the surface if it exists into regions of lower density within itself, but all within the concentration of the constituents of the medium. The surrounding pressure either moves the spread material or assists it to dissolve further, thus minimising it's conc traction within the environmental medium.

The exponential variation in body pressures with height in a gravitational accelerative field helps to explain how bubbles move upward in a continuous fluid, and why they have surface tension dynamics .

When I consider the fullest possible description, I have to include magnetic dynamics to understand th intricacies even in the case of the mercury barometer, where the implosive vacuum plays a major part in distinguishing the pressure concept. .

The pressure concept is slightly modified to give a measure of so called temperature, but which I prefer to call heat or frequency pressure. The internal body pressures that cues material expansion and ontraction are often overlooked as a source of curvilineal lines of force.thus high heat pressure accelerates the heat front toward a higher density within the material, a higher concentration of the material but a lower frequency and thus a lower curvilineal force profile. This pressure in the hot region could be associated with a lower density in that region, but that would be wrong. As I have explained the density or concentration of the material may be changing but it's total mass is not, so it's effective density is constant. What promotes the induction/ conduction of the heat in the material is the higher pressure due to higher frequency in one area. In effect the density/ concentration is oscillating, and that oscillation is impinging on the inertial density of the colder region , this inertial density/ concentration is oscillating at a lower frequency and the impinging oscillation from the hotter region causes a resonance effect to or is way through the matrial. , the material may expand but it's density remains effectively constant .

The effect of spreading a fixed volume over a greater area does not explain an increase in environmental force on a material by decrease of density but rather by increase in surface contact, and that contact can accelerate or dissolve a material structure in a trochoidal dynamic. In differing mediums it is acceleration toward the lower density. In the same medium it is dissolving of the lower frequency medium by the higher frequency portion of it, moving through inertial constraint to an equilibrium frequency .

Now that higher frequency pressure will accelerate to the lower density environment more quickly with lower inertia impedance , thus radiation the frequncy or pressure as frequncy into the environment,

Rather than o calle entropy increasing, frequency distribution occurs resulting in damped oscillation that is lower frequencies in any local experiment.

The laws of thermodynamics are local not universal laws, inertia makes that point abundantly Lear. The mystery of the powersvofvthis universe that exhibit as these complex pressure structures can not be resolved by thermodynamics. Magnetic behaviour is a sounder basis for a theory of universal dynamics
• edited March 2017
The conception of pressure is mediated by the concept of viscosity.

Pressure is principally defined in. Fluid or gas / plasma situation , so a viscous material is not usually thought of in pressure terms. The hydraulic piston for example is one of our great pressure devices, but the fluid within the system is rarely of a viscous nature, and yet certain systems require different viscosity es in the transmitting medium . A dense material whi h sinks through a fluid of low viscosity will rest on the depressed surface of mor viscous one ,

In these cases the volume of displaced material does not measure the gravitational force on the mass of the impinging dense material, surface tension forces play a much greater role in establishing the pressure equilibrium.

The point is that pressure exists in a curvilineal Fotce relationship within media. In more viscous materials the curvilineal for es in the surface of contact are a major contributor to the pressure in or on each material .
In fluid mechanics the shear fotces in a surface, the noml forces to a urface and the curvilineal forces within a surface are all considered factors , and these should be summed to the body pressure within a volume of material or a material point

Note that the body pressure is ignored in the body force idea so surface forces are not related to body force directly

• Note how the same formula quantifies different actions and are immediately separated in the students mind! A solid therefore supposedly exerts no pressure, nor can pressure generate surface forces, supposedly

This distinction is a simplistic mistake . And the pressure DENSTY formula is clearly prescriptive rather than descriptive., there is no application to viscous materials
• One of the interesting observations of waves is diffraction.

The general explanation of diffraction is naively given to Huygens principle of infinite sources on a wave front. . However here is a more observable cause of diffraction and that is vortex shedding

vortices appear in regions where explosive and implosive pressures interact., vortex shedding in environments where the pressure is driving a fluid mass in a given direction.

The body pressure in the fluid is provided by a combination of the usual major pressure behaviours nd a local driving pressure. The flow may be established as a laminar or steady state body flow.
However when an objecti placed in this stream the body pressure of the object reacts inertial ly with the environmental flow. The observed effect is contact on one upstream side of the object and detachment on the down stream end. It is this detachment which is unstable giving rise to curvilineal forces through the pressure interaction ? The vortices therefore oscillate and spread out whether through a gap or round an ege

In smooth laminar flow there is no frequency to the Flow no wave structutre to increase the separation stability

The interacting vortices produce interference patterns
• edited March 2017

The curvilineal forces

the expanding rotational wave

The interference pattern of diffraction.

Vortices and flow paths that is transverse and longitudinal components introduced into a uniform pressure flow by diffraction. Dispersion of colours is minimal