Hi, here is one of my latest projects that I'm currently working on. I hope you find it interesting as I do. I still have more research to do with the PMH generator and a lot more to talk about.
The PMH generator is made almost entirely from LEGO parts. On the magnet rotor I use (12) n35 20mmx2mm neodymium magnets that is capable of lifting up around 5 pounds with one pole and up to 30 pounds using both poles and the Coils on the PMH are tuned to 60Hz .The prime mover is a DC motor with a 5 pole armature and is powered from a 9 volt aa battery box. I use a 1000uf 35v capacitor to store the charge along with different kinds of diode rectifier circuits to charge the capacitor.
In part 1 I started out by testing a center tap rectifier on the PMH generator which basically work about as good as the half wave single diode rectifier I used in the part 2. Later in the video I connect the lego speed computer to show the RPM of the magnet rotor while I put a load on. The Load I use here is a stepper motor which was able to turn with much more force then the DC motor but that was only for a very brief second. Now the RPM on the Magnet rotor with out the Stepper motor connected was around 2500 and when the Stepper motor was connected to the capacitor the RPM increased up to 2600 RPM.
Now one of the first things I wanted to do with my PMH generator is replicate this magnetic effect called the where the magnet rotor increases its RPM while under a load connected to the capacitor which appears to be defying lenz law. Now this magnetic effect can be explained by something I call and can easily be done to a DC Motor by weakening the strength of the magnets to make its armature rotate faster but for a Generator it rotates faster because the rotor magnets interaction with the ferromagnetic Core weakens due to the capacitor which is essentially a break in the circuit and because of this break in the circuit Lenz law never goes in effect. Now the effect is apparent when a load is connected to the capacitor because of this all those individual magnets have somewhere to go instantly and weakens ferromagnetic Core interaction with the rotor magnets allowing the DC motor to rotate the magnet rotor faster. Ed some what mentions about this while hes explaining why alternating current are able to run so far away their generators
You have been wondering why alternating currents can run so far away from their generators. One reason is between every time the currents start and stop there is no pressure in the wire so the magnets from the air run in the wire and when the run starts there already are magnets in the wire which do not have to come from the generator, so the power line itself is a small generator which assists the big generator to furnish the magnets for the currents to run with. I have a generator that generates currents on a small scale from the air without using any magnets around it.
This time in part 2 I hook up a full wave bridge rectifier to the PMH generator which is generating around 30 AC volts and rectified that to 29 DC volts, but once I put a load on like a DC LEGO XL motor, the voltage output drops down somewhere around 2 DC volts. Now understand that the XL motor is capable of 150-240 RPM by being powered off the 9 volt aa battery box and that gives me a base RPM to compare the PMH generator ability to power the XL motor to. Also another thing to take in consideration is that I am able to connect up two DC XL motors together at their wire leeds and by hand be able to rotate the shaft on one of the XL motor and use it as a generator to directly power spin the other XL motor with about as much RPM and Torque as I put on the DC generator shaft.
That is it for now. Thanks for reading!
Your understanding can only grow the more you experiment and observe.
I also figure out the frequency of the PMH generator is spinning the magnet rotor around at to see what I can do with frequency and resonance to improve the PMH generator. The 9Vdc the DC motor with the 5 pole armature is capable of rotating the 6 pole magnet rotor around 2400 RPM to 2600 RPM which is 40.0_Hz to 43.3_Hz, but because of the 6 magnet poles on the rotor this multiplies the frequency by 6 and gives me a new frequency of 240Hz to 259.98Hz. Which leads me to the next part of research and that is connecting up the PMH Generator to a Transformer and record how one transformer will operate with the generator along with powering the DC motor. Then after that proceed to connect up two identical Transformer's primary coils in parallel together with the PMH generating coils wires and the transformer secondary coils are connected together series. Because the primary windings on the transformers is wired together in parallel the voltage on both coils will remain the same and the total amount of current adds up and for the secondary winding's that are connected together in series, the current remains the same and the total amount of voltage adds up. I added some links in the quote box below providing explanations about transformers in series and parallel. In the previous two videos of the PMH generator, I made a mistake on the schematic of the magnets on the magnet rotor, everything else in the schematic is fine except the polarity on the neodymium magnets is backwards. The video down below displays the correct polarity how the neodymium are.
Now with the correction on the schematic and Transformer's connected to the PMH generator you can clearly see how Lenz is taking its toll on the magnet rotor RPM in the drawing. Now here I'm going to expand a little more on some of my previous thoughts about the Lenz Law and share my recent understandings as to what is going on here. In Magnetic Current Ed writes that when currents reverse they reverse the magnet pols in the coil along with describing what the coil does when it is approaching and receding in the magnet field. Now add what Ed says above to what he writes about how that in a battery the north pole magnets run out of the positive terminal and south pole magnets run out of the negative terminal to how he writes about how the North and South Individual magnets are coming out of the earth's North and South pole and you will see that Ed is right about his observation on Earth magnetic field along with everything else.
In this video I connect the PMH coils in series to increase the total voltage out of them. While in the previous video the PMH coils are connected in parallel to increase the total current out of them. Based on the two videos it can be seen that increasing the voltage help out way more then the connection that increased the current. Now Ed writes that in order to have direct current we must us commutator and then continues on about his most efficient machine along with how Transformers and Generators of any description are making the Magnetic Currents . Now why does Ed write about how generators works and then proceeds to tells us about his most efficient machine along with giving a vague description of a wheel and many coils around the wheel turning making all kinds of light. What does Ed want us to gain from this vague description? Did Edward really make a patent for his machine or is this some type of hidden message for the reader. Edward further writes that he made ten different machines to make magnetic current, then later writes that he found a certain combination between field magnets and coils the most efficient and shows to make magnetic currents the time is important. However, later in the book Edward illustrate how his best machine is doing it by only using one coil and one U shape permanent magnet and also writes that he was able to make two light flashes while the coil passed through the field magnet only one time. This is a good example of Lenz law in action but here Ed is more focused on producing Light and the Faraday Flash Light is a good example that does what Ed is exactly describing here. I also made improvements to the generator design so I can add another set of PMH coils to further increase the voltage up to 120Vac and then I can use the rated input/output on the transformer to directly compare against the output for the LEGO PMH generator design.
The magneto Thermo electro complex extends through sympathetic vibratory physics to " sound" , but the more general concept is vibration.
Again " wave" forms have obscured this vibratory connection because the fundamental connection is not a wave but Rotation in and of space in 3 gyres in complex fractal relationships,
I prefer to call it " heat pressure", so that I do not create an unphysical characteristic. The expansion of mercury or a fluid due to the introduction of " heat " can then be focused on more clearly.
Of course we may then ask what is this " energy" called heat? That then reduces in my mind to the magnetic rotation within any defined space.finally you might like to research the concept of trochoids to avoid falling into the habit of thinking rotation is simply circular!
I agree with the "Heat Pressure" term however there is also a "Cold Pressure" as well. Both terms is one way to describe how the crookes radiometer rotates and this is due to that heat pressure force on the black side of the vane and the cold pressure force on the white side of the vane.
I'm familiar with kinematics and thermal motion; However, I'm more experienced with the real world application where theory is put in action in the form of an Heat Engine where Heat is generated through the act of compression. I'm also familiar with what happens to similar Magnetic fields when they'er under compression too.
In material science dealing with magnets there is a phenomenon known as a Curie temperature. This critical point in temperature is where "magnetism" is lost in a permanent magnet. Remember that Ed says the real magnet is the substance that is circulating in the metal. See the Magnetic domain theory can only teach so much about how magnets work and does not explain why the PMH can become a Magnet and losses its "magnetism" just by the removing the cross bar and disconnecting the magnetic circuit. Now in material science there is something called coercivity and is the measure of ferromagnetic force to withstand an external magnetic force. Soft magnetic materials have low coercivity and Hard magnetic materials have high corecivity.
But now one must carefully define hot and cold. That is when you find out English has no proper antonym for heat. Cold is both an adjective and a noun!
I live in a flud dynamic paradigm. I shifted to it about a year ago, after years of puzzling about what was blocking my understanding . I realised it was an imposed concept of solidity and other similar concepts like rigidity and fixedness.
I thus interpret Eds substance as plasma. But plasma is not the 4 th state of matter. If anything it is an alternative concept for matter. Thus hot fusion and cold fusion are all everyday occurrences, buried by incorrect notions like temperature.
In classical physics, where the Rayleigh-Jeans equipartition law holds, temperature amounts to energy per degree of freedom E/N = (1/2)kT. However, "energy per degree of freedom" is meaningful not only in thermal equilibrium, but for any small part of a system. Some highly nontrivial insights into the second law of thermodynamics by Edwin Jaynes are based on this seemingly trivial observation (Clearing Up Mysteries – The Original Goal, see section titled The Second Law in Biology): On the other hand, "heat pressure" and "cold pressure" are vague terms which are apt to mislead. Indeed, boxerlego already seems to be deceived by these terms, for he gives the following mechanism behind the Crookes radiometer: The currently accepted explanation for the rotation of vanes in the Crookes radiometer goes like this (How does a light-mill work?): I would suggest a simple modification to Crookes radiometer that could show at once who is in the right - boxerlego or Reynolds. If the explanation of the Crookes effect is to be sought on the edges of the vanes (Reynolds) rather than in the pressure differences on the black and white faces of each vane (boxerlego), replace the square vanes with vanes of the same face area but doubled perimeter (for example, by making vane edges jagged like a saw). Then, if the Reynolds' explanation is the correct one, the vanes should rotate with noticeably increased (perhaps, twice as much) vigor.
Besides, the suggested modification (provided Reynolds is correct, and I am not missing something here) could increase significantly the efficiency of light-mill as a heat engine.
Very interesting insight. However as heat pressure was my suggested replacement for temperature, I think I should be the one " defending" the terminology.
Indeed it is a vague concept, and one I have not empirically tested or refined. The issue I have with physical definitions at the moment is that they rely on a set of notions which are definitional in character rather than empirical. The concept of temperature is either a measure or a philosophical description of some property of materials, perceptible to human consciousness and thus discerned then distinguished by naming or terminology and then attributed to a wide range of analogous situations.
The measure is a concrete physically observable behaviour which can be scaled. The physical behaviour is the expansion of mercury. The measure is how much it expands in a narrow capillary in a "vacuum". This expansion is in a vacuum so as to minimise counter pressure by expanding gases. Hence the idea of the relation of the expansion to a similar ideas of pressure.
Again, pressure is measured by a column of mercury , but this time the gases are retained in the manometer. It is the pressure on the gases that is being measured in this way.
As always these simple solutions to measures for these 2 different but related phenomenon have drawbacks and assumptions which now cannot be ignored. Consequently we move on to different standars for measuring these things. While energy may be the new standard, energy is itself highly conceptual. A complex set of reference measures are used to calibrate the unit of energy used by science and engineering. To understand these references requires a faith in the veracity of certain systematic assumptions, such as the atom for example , and all of particle physics. I do not find it convenient to share that faith.
In addition the concept of pressure is fundamental to the notion of vis, often translated as force but equally accommodating the idea energy. Vis conceptually is a vague idea! However the measures established by Newton and his peers are designed and defined unambiguously.
The question then is do these measures equate to our philosophicl conceptions ie Vis? The answer is no. In fact vis and vis viva are currently expressed in the momentum measure, the force measure and the kinetic energy measure. These measures over time and use have been consensually accepted as modelling the philosophical perceptions of Vis.
Technologically these measures have proved very useful, but philosophically they have become confused with the concepts they are related to. The accelerative vis for example is nowadays called a field, but that vis impinges on the velocity of bodies within its sphere of influence. Thus the change in velocity of a body is not evidence of a field, rather it is the definition of a vis concept acting in space on the velocity of objects in and of that space. It is a definition solely toward the goal of establishing a quantitative measure.
We therefore start with a qualitative perception of an experience of a magnitude that is extensive and varies, but that is qualitative. It is also ontological: it s how we define its existence. However to make it empirical our senses have to be narrowed down to just a few exterior receptors. These are usually sight and sound receptors. In that mode displacement and memory take on a huge significance. Our concept of measure is based on memorable Metrons and their placement and or displacement in the experience we call space and time.
Newton more than any other, but certainly not of his own invention developed these experiences of the use and applicability of Metrons into a philosophy of Quantity. His system of Weights and measures was framed in a universal context, not merely a national or Imperial one. Thus like Archimedes Newton established a system to literally weigh the stars!
Pressure I submit of all the qualities of vis is the most fundamental physically palpable experience that grounds all other notions of Vis. Pressure is also kinaesthetic and thus a more intuitive concept of force , energy and temperature and radiation.
Beyond this line of thought I do not wish to go at present, leaving that to others.
To boxerlego: I apologise if this is a distraction in your thread.
Curie Point Magnetic Heat Engine
MIT Physics Demo -- Conducting Glass Let it be known that there is also a mechanism for expansion based on cold temperature called water, the only know fluid by my knowledge that is able to expand when in cold temperatures. However, generally speaking material contraction is dynamically occurring at cold temperatures through out almost everything. Watch how copper or aluminium at very cold temperatures is able to improve the eddy currents in the element in response to a magnet field. During these very cold temperature condition's the element is compressing itself and the atoms are moving closer together thus improving the magnetic effect.
@Barau_R_Tour Thank you for the correction on the Radio meter. That was pure temperature observation on my end with my own Radio meter... I will agree that Reynolds is correct where he writes that "the explanation must be in terms of what happens not at the faces of the vanes, but near their edges". That statement resonates when dealing with eddy currents and improving efficiency with transformers. Also the statement Reynolds made provides a more enhanced view regarding certain variations of theSterling Engines, in junction to the pressure expansion happening inside the cylinder, Absolutely fascinating.
If you are interested in heat engines, you might find it fascinating that it is possible in principle (meaning that the second law of thermodynamics does not forbid it) to operate an oven in winter time at zero operating cost.
Here is how it works. First we extract useful energy E1 from the air of a kitchen using a heat engine operating between the air of the kitchen at room temperature T1=300K (heater) and the outside air at below freezing temperature T0=250K (cooler). Then we use the extracted energy E1 to heat up a well-insulated oven in our kitchen to cooking temperature T2=500K. After we are done with the cooking, we run another heat engine operating between the oven (heater) and the kitchen air (cooler). The result of the work of this second engine is that it generates useful energy E2, on the one hand, and dumps some heat back to the room, on the other hand; i.e. we get back all the energy we used for heating up the oven (well, almost everything, for some energy went to cooking). At last, we use the energy E2 generated by the second engine to run backwards the first engine (i.e. use it as a refrigerator) and transfer heat from the cold winter air back to the kitchen, thereby almost restoring the air of the kitchen to the room temperature.
The final result is that we have managed to use heat energy of the air in the kitchen for doing our cooking at ZERO operating cost!
See details here: Free Ovens for Eskimos.
Now that the PMH Magneto has two coils sets it can generate voltages up to 120Vac. Also I show voltage and current outputs on the 9Vdc batteries 120Vac transformer to compare with the output rating on the PMH Magneto. Now one comparison I want to point out is that the magneto can generate 120V and I can compare the Transformer output with 120V 60Hz mains electricity with that of the Magneto on a equal voltage level. Now once the Transformer is connected with the PMH generator there is a voltage drop on it, unlike with the mains electricity the magneto can only output so much here.
Now one thing I thought It would be worthy to point out here is that Edward Leedskalnin suggest using a either a dynamo or battery to power the PMH. So I thought I was a good Idea to power the PMH magneto with a dynamo and battery too.