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PMH Generator and analysis

edited July 2014 in Edward Leedskalnin
Hi, here is one of my latest projects that I'm currently working on. I hope you find it interesting as I do. I still have more research to do with the PMH generator and a lot more to talk about.

The PMH generator is made almost entirely from LEGO parts. On the magnet rotor I use (12) n35 20mmx2mm neodymium magnets that is capable of lifting up around 5 pounds with one pole and up to 30 pounds using both poles and the Coils on the PMH are tuned to 60Hz .The prime mover is a DC motor with a 5 pole armature and is powered from a 9 volt aa battery box. I use a 1000uf 35v capacitor to store the charge along with different kinds of diode rectifier circuits to charge the capacitor.

In part 1 I started out by testing a center tap rectifier on the PMH generator which basically work about as good as the half wave single diode rectifier I used in the part 2. Later in the video I connect the lego speed computer to show the RPM of the magnet rotor while I put a load on. The Load I use here is a stepper motor which was able to turn with much more force then the DC motor but that was only for a very brief second. Now the RPM on the Magnet rotor with out the Stepper motor connected was around 2500 and when the Stepper motor was connected to the capacitor the RPM increased up to 2600 RPM.

Now one of the first things I wanted to do with my PMH generator is replicate this magnetic effect called the Angus effect where the magnet rotor increases its RPM while under a load connected to the capacitor which appears to be defying lenz law. Now this magnetic effect can be explained by something I call demagnetizing speed and can easily be done to a DC Motor by weakening the strength of the magnets to make its armature rotate faster but for a Generator it rotates faster because the rotor magnets interaction with the ferromagnetic Core weakens due to the capacitor which is essentially a break in the circuit and because of this break in the circuit Lenz law never goes in effect. Now the effect is apparent when a load is connected to the capacitor because of this all those individual magnets have somewhere to go instantly and weakens ferromagnetic Core interaction with the rotor magnets allowing the DC motor to rotate the magnet rotor faster. Ed some what mentions about this while hes explaining why alternating current are able to run so far away their generators
You have been wondering why alternating currents can run so far away from their generators. One reason is between every time the currents start and stop there is no pressure in the wire so the magnets from the air run in the wire and when the run starts there already are magnets in the wire which do not have to come from the generator, so the power line itself is a small generator which assists the big generator to furnish the magnets for the currents to run with. I have a generator that generates currents on a small scale from the air without using any magnets around it.

This time in part 2 I hook up a full wave bridge rectifier to the PMH generator which is generating around 30 AC volts and rectified that to 29 DC volts, but once I put a load on like a DC LEGO XL motor, the voltage output drops down somewhere around 2 DC volts. Now understand that the XL motor is capable of 150-240 RPM by being powered off the 9 volt aa battery box and that gives me a base RPM to compare the PMH generator ability to power the XL motor to. Also another thing to take in consideration is that I am able to connect up two DC XL motors together at their wire leeds and by hand be able to rotate the shaft on one of the XL motor and use it as a generator to directly power spin the other XL motor with about as much RPM and Torque as I put on the DC generator shaft.

That is it for now. Thanks for reading!


  • Thanks for your posts . It is always interesting to see how magnetism inspires research and construction of devices.

    Your understanding can only grow the more you experiment and observe.
  • Thanks, I have more information I want to post about this PMH generator. I put together and tested several devices not all of them I record but the PMH generator is the best one I made so far.

  • edited August 2014
    Now one of my objectives with the PMH generator is to find and implement ways to increase the overall RPM of the DC XL motor with out constructing additional generating coils around the magnet rotor. One way to increase the RPM on the motor is to step up the total amount of voltage the motor is receiving and this can be accomplished with a transformer or even with a voltage multiplier.

    I also figure out the frequency of the PMH generator is spinning the magnet rotor around at to see what I can do with frequency and resonance to improve the PMH generator. The 9Vdc the DC motor with the 5 pole armature is capable of rotating the 6 pole magnet rotor around 2400 RPM to 2600 RPM which is 40.0_Hz to 43.3_Hz, but because of the 6 magnet poles on the rotor this multiplies the frequency by 6 and gives me a new frequency of 240Hz to 259.98Hz.
    Which leads me to the next part of research and that is connecting up the PMH Generator to a Transformer and record how one transformer will operate with the generator along with powering the DC motor. Then after that proceed to connect up two identical Transformer's primary coils in parallel together with the PMH generating coils wires and the transformer secondary coils are connected together series. Because the primary windings on the transformers is wired together in parallel the voltage on both coils will remain the same and the total amount of current adds up and for the secondary winding's that are connected together in series, the current remains the same and the total amount of voltage adds up. I added some links in the quote box below providing explanations about transformers in series and parallel.'s_circuit_laws
    In the previous two videos of the PMH generator, I made a mistake on the schematic of the magnets on the magnet rotor, everything else in the schematic is fine except the polarity on the neodymium magnets is backwards. The video down below displays the correct polarity how the neodymium are.

    Now with the correction on the schematic and Transformer's connected to the PMH generator you can clearly see how Lenz is taking its toll on the magnet rotor RPM in the drawing. Now here I'm going to expand a little more on some of my previous thoughts about the Lenz Law and share my recent understandings as to what is going on here. In Magnetic Current Ed writes that when currents reverse they reverse the magnet pols in the coil along with describing what the coil does when it is approaching and receding in the magnet field.

    When currents reverse they reverse the magnet poles in the coil. Every time when the coil is approaching the field magnets, the currents which are made in the coil during that time are making magnet poles in the coil's core ends, the same as those field magnet poles they are approaching, but during the time the coil is receding those currents are making the coil's magnet poles opposite to the field magnets they are receding from.
    Page 13-14
    Now add what Ed says above to what he writes about how that in a battery the north pole magnets run out of the positive terminal and south pole magnets run out of the negative terminal to how he writes about how the North and South Individual magnets are coming out of the earth's North and South pole and you will see that Ed is right about his observation on Earth magnetic field along with everything else.

    In a car battery the North Pole magnets run out of positive terminal and South Pole magnets run out of negative terminal. Both kinds of magnets are running, one kind of magnets against the other kind, and are running in the same right-hand screw fashion. By using the same whirling motion and running one kind of magnets against the other kind, they throw their own magnets from the wire in opposite directions. That is why if you put a magnet metal across the copper wire the one end is North Pole and the other end South Pole.
    Page 8

    The North Pole individual magnets are coming out of the earth's South Pole and are running around in the earth's North Pole and back to its own pole, and South Pole individual magnets are coming out of the earth's North Pole and are running around, and in earth South Pole and back to its own end. Then both North and South Pole individual magnets start to run over and over again.
  • edited August 2014

    In this video I connect the PMH coils in series to increase the total voltage out of them. While in the previous video the PMH coils are connected in parallel to increase the total current out of them. Based on the two videos it can be seen that increasing the voltage help out way more then the connection that increased the current. Now Ed writes that in order to have direct current we must us commutator and then continues on about his most efficient machine along with how Transformers and Generators of any description are making the Magnetic Currents [1]. Now why does Ed write about how generators works and then proceeds to tells us about his most efficient machine along with giving a vague description of a wheel and many coils around the wheel turning making all kinds of light. What does Ed want us to gain from this vague description? Did Edward really make a patent for his machine or is this some type of hidden message for the reader. Edward further writes that he made ten different machines to make magnetic current, then later writes that he found a certain combination between field magnets and coils the most efficient and shows to make magnetic currents the time is important. However, later in the book Edward illustrate how his best machine is doing it by only using one coil and one U shape permanent magnet [2]and also writes that he was able to make two light flashes while the coil passed through the field magnet only one time. This is a good example of Lenz law in action but here Ed is more focused on producing Light and the Faraday Flash Light is a good example that does what Ed is exactly describing here.
    [1] Now about the generator. In the first place all currents are alternating. To get direct currents we have to use a commutator. Transformers and generators of any description are making the currents in the same way by filling the coil's iron core with magnets and letting the iron core push them out and into the coil. Connect the battery with the electric magnet. it will be a field magnet now. Put the three-inch coil between the iron prongs. and take it out, do it fast, repeat it, then you will have a steady light in the light bulb. Now you and the field magnet are a generator. Suppose you had a wheel and many coils around the wheel turning, then you would be making all kinds of light. Do not make the machine, I already have the application for patent in the Patent Office. I made ten different machines to make magnetic currents, but I found this combination between field magnets and coils the most efficient. Put the coil in slowly and take it out slowly, then you will have no light. That will show, to make magnetic currents, the time is important.
    Page 11-12
    [2] You made magnetic currents in three different ways, but in principle they all were made exactly in the same way. Magnetic currents are made by concentrating. then dividing and then shifting the existing North and South Pole individual magnets from one place to another. Now I will illustrate how my best machine is doing it. I will use only one coil, and one U shape permanent magnet without using the winding that the machine uses to increase the permanent magnet strength. If you had a permanent magnet that the coil you use in the electric magnet would go in between the prongs of it, then that would be good to demonstrate, but if you have not, then use the same one you have. Get an iron core the same dimensions as in the three-inch coil, but long enough to go between the permanent magnet prongs. Wind the same number of turns and connect with the light bulb. Fasten the U shape permanent magnet very good, bend up, prongs down, North Pole North. South Pole South. Now push the coil through the prongs from West to East. Do it fast, then there will be light in the bulb, now push the coil and stop in middle, and then push again, this time you will have two lights while the coil went through the magnet prongs only once. You had two lights the first time also, but you did not notice they came in quick succession, When you pushed the coil's middle up to field magnet's middle the currents ran in one direction, and when you pushed the coil away from the field magnet's middle, then the currents reversed, then ran in the other direction. That is why you got two light flashes while the coil passed through the field magnet only one time.
    Page 13
    I also made improvements to the generator design so I can add another set of PMH coils to further increase the voltage up to 120Vac and then I can use the rated input/output on the transformer to directly compare against the output for the LEGO PMH generator design.
  • Thanks again for these careful reconstructions. The PMH generator generates a much more rapid AC current because of Eds design.
  • edited August 2014
    Howard Johnson was apparently a neighbour of Ed in Coral Castle. Whether they communicated or not I do not know, but they shared a common interest in magnetic philosophy which has a long history obscured by electric magnetism. The magneto Thermo electro complex suffers from Victorian scientific prejudices. I feel that the recent widespread Internet phenomenon centred on Ed has enabled researchers to reconnect with a prior mindset that was not commercially driven, but was still flawed.

    The magneto Thermo electro complex extends through sympathetic vibratory physics to " sound" , but the more general concept is vibration.

    Again " wave" forms have obscured this vibratory connection because the fundamental connection is not a wave but Rotation in and of space in 3 gyres in complex fractal relationships,
  • That is some interesting stuff about Howard Johnson and Edward being neighbors, it would be awesome to find out if that is true. Now I've never red Howard Johnson book The Secret World of Magnets but I'm familiar with some of his work. Nice thing about Howard Johnson is that there're patents to go look at dealing with magnetic propulsion systems. However, devices dealing with magnetic propulsion is usually seen as perpetual motion. Edward Leedskalnin on the other hand demonstrates perpetual motion holder. Now in Eds book Magnetic Current he wrote this
    The real magnet is the substance that is circulating in the metal. Each particle in the substance is an individual magnet by itself, and both North and South Pole individual magnets. They are so small that they can pass through anything.. In fact they can pass through metal easier than through the air. They are in constant motion, they are running one kind of magnets against the other kind, and if guided in the right channels they possess perpetual power.
    Page 1
    Now a very interesting fact about Superconductivity is the phenomena know as Persistent current. This persistent current is regarded as an electrical current that doesn't stop in the wire due to the zero resistance in the wire created by specific temperatures. In Magnetic Current he wrote on several pages that electrical current is really a magnetic current
    Magnetic currents, or if you want to call it electric current, make no light. We only get light if we put obstructions in the light bulbs. In the light bulbs the wire is so small that all magnets cannot pass through easily, so they heat the wire up and burn and make light. If the wire in the light bulb had been as large inside as it is outside then there would be no light. Then those individual magnets which are in the coil would dissipate in air.
    and before that quote on Page 11 he wrote that soft Iron has alot to do with making magnetic currents and he demonstrates this part with the perpetual motion holder.
    Another thing, you have been wondering how a U shape permanent magnet can keep its normal strength indefinitely. You know the soft iron does not hold magnets, but you already have one that holds it. It is the perpetual motion holder. It illustrates the principle how permanent magnets are made. All that has to be done is to start the magnets to run in on orbit, then they will never stop. Hard steel U shape magnets have a broken orbit, but under proper conditions it is permanent. I think the structure of the metal is the answer. I have two U shape magnets. They look alike, but one is a little harder than the other. The harder one can lift three pounds more than the softer one. I have been tempering the other steel magnets, and have noticed that the harder the steel gets the smaller it becomes. That shows that the metal is more packed and has less holes in it so the magnets cannot pass through it in full speed, so they dam up in the prong ends. They come in faster than they can get out. I think the ability for the soft steel welding rod to hold magnets is in the metal's fine structure.
    Page 18
    Now if you take what science explains how the establishment of persistent electrical currents in superconductors, It can be deduced that Edward is some what spot on about his thoughts on harnessing perpetual power; However, Ed's view is center around the idea that if guided in the right channels then it will possess perpetual power and later towards the end of the book Ed cements his idea with writing that the structure of the metal is the answer. Now an interesting question to ask here is how does temperature effect the structure of the metal?
  • A more fundamental question is " what is Temperature?"

    I prefer to call it " heat pressure", so that I do not create an unphysical characteristic. The expansion of mercury or a fluid due to the introduction of " heat " can then be focused on more clearly.

    Of course we may then ask what is this " energy" called heat? That then reduces in my mind to the magnetic rotation within any defined space.finally you might like to research the concept of trochoids to avoid falling into the habit of thinking rotation is simply circular!
  • Great question, Yes lets refresh our minds on Temperature first so we can have a better view as to how temperature effects the structure of the metallic elements manly the transition metal.

    I agree with the "Heat Pressure" term however there is also a "Cold Pressure" as well. Both terms is one way to describe how the crookes radiometer rotates and this is due to that heat pressure force on the black side of the vane and the cold pressure force on the white side of the vane.

    I'm familiar with kinematics and thermal motion; However, I'm more experienced with the real world application where theory is put in action in the form of an Heat Engine where Heat is generated through the act of compression. I'm also familiar with what happens to similar Magnetic fields when they'er under compression too.

    In material science dealing with magnets there is a phenomenon known as a Curie temperature. This critical point in temperature is where "magnetism" is lost in a permanent magnet. Remember that Ed says the real magnet is the substance that is circulating in the metal. See the Magnetic domain theory can only teach so much about how magnets work and does not explain why the PMH can become a Magnet and losses its "magnetism" just by the removing the cross bar and disconnecting the magnetic circuit. Now in material science there is something called coercivity and is the measure of ferromagnetic force to withstand an external magnetic force. Soft magnetic materials have low coercivity and Hard magnetic materials have high corecivity. image
  • edited September 2014
    Cold pressure is the one that we ignore. There is a mechanism for contraction based on cold pressure, just as there is one for expansion based on heat pressure.

    But now one must carefully define hot and cold. That is when you find out English has no proper antonym for heat. Cold is both an adjective and a noun!

    I live in a flud dynamic paradigm. I shifted to it about a year ago, after years of puzzling about what was blocking my understanding . I realised it was an imposed concept of solidity and other similar concepts like rigidity and fixedness.

    I thus interpret Eds substance as plasma. But plasma is not the 4 th state of matter. If anything it is an alternative concept for matter. Thus hot fusion and cold fusion are all everyday occurrences, buried by incorrect notions like temperature.
  • edited September 2014
    A more fundamental question is "what is Temperature?"
    I prefer to call it "heat pressure", so that I do not create an unphysical characteristic.
    In fact, temperature is a well-defined physical concept, notwithstanding that it has a drawback: temperature is defined only for a system in thermal equilibrium.

    In classical physics, where the Rayleigh-Jeans equipartition law holds, temperature amounts to energy per degree of freedom E/N = (1/2)kT. However, "energy per degree of freedom" is meaningful not only in thermal equilibrium, but for any small part of a system. Some highly nontrivial insights into the second law of thermodynamics by Edwin Jaynes are based on this seemingly trivial observation (Clearing Up Mysteries – The Original Goal, see section titled The Second Law in Biology):
    ... we are after something more general, which can replace the second law for all purposes, not merely engines. To achieve this we must understand clearly the basic physical reason why there is a second law limitation on processes. We suggest that the fundamental keyword characterizing the second law is not "disorder", but reproducibility.
    On the other hand, "heat pressure" and "cold pressure" are vague terms which are apt to mislead. Indeed, boxerlego already seems to be deceived by these terms, for he gives the following mechanism behind the Crookes radiometer:
    I agree with the "Heat Pressure" term however there is also a "Cold Pressure" as well. Both terms is one way to describe how the crookes radiometer rotates and this is due to that heat pressure force on the black side of the vane and the cold pressure force on the white side of the vane.
    The currently accepted explanation for the rotation of vanes in the Crookes radiometer goes like this (How does a light-mill work?):
    The correct solution to the problem was provided qualitatively by Osborne Reynolds, better remembered for the "Reynolds number". Early in 1879 Reynolds submitted a paper to the Royal Society in which he considered what he called "thermal transpiration", and also discussed the theory of the radiometer. By "thermal transpiration", Reynolds meant the flow of gas through porous plates caused by a temperature difference on the two sides of the plates. If the gas is initially at the same pressure on the two sides, it flows from the colder to the hotter side, resulting in a higher pressure on the hotter side if the plates cannot move. Equilibrium is reached when the ratio of pressures on either side is the square root of the ratio of absolute temperatures. This counterintuitive result is due to tangential forces between the gas molecules and the sides of the narrow pores in the plates. The effect of these thermomolecular forces is very similar to the thermomechanical effects of superfluid liquid helium. This liquid, which lacks all viscosity, will climb the sides of its container towards a warmer region. In fact, this form of liquid helium climbs so quickly up the sides of a thin capillary tube dipped into it, that a fountain is produced at the tube's other end.

    The vanes of a radiometer are not porous. To explain the radiometer, therefore, one must focus attention not on the faces of the vanes, but on their edges. The faster molecules from the warmer side strike the edges obliquely and impart a higher force than the colder molecules. Again, these are the same thermomolecular forces responsible for Reynolds' thermal transpiration. The effect is also known as thermal creep, since it causes gases to creep along a surface that has a temperature gradient. The net movement of the vane due to the tangential forces around the edges is away from the warmer gas and towards the cooler gas, with the gas passing around the edge in the opposite direction. The behaviour is just as if there were a greater force on the blackened side of the vane (which as Maxwell showed is not the case); but the explanation must be in terms of what happens not at the faces of the vanes, but near their edges.

    Maxwell refereed Reynolds' paper, and so became aware of his suggestion. Maxwell at once made a detailed mathematical analysis of the problem, and submitted his own paper, "On stresses in rarefied gases arising from inequalities of temperature", for publication in the Philosophical Transactions; it appeared in 1879, shortly before his death. The paper gave due credit to Reynolds' suggestion that the effect is at the edges of the vanes, but criticised Reynolds' mathematical treatment. Reynolds' paper had not yet appeared (it was published in 1881), and Reynolds was incensed by the fact that Maxwell's paper had not only appeared first, but had criticised his unpublished work! Reynolds wanted his protest to be published by the Royal Society, but after Maxwell's death this was deemed inappropriate.
    I would suggest a simple modification to Crookes radiometer that could show at once who is in the right - boxerlego or Reynolds. If the explanation of the Crookes effect is to be sought on the edges of the vanes (Reynolds) rather than in the pressure differences on the black and white faces of each vane (boxerlego), replace the square vanes with vanes of the same face area but doubled perimeter (for example, by making vane edges jagged like a saw). Then, if the Reynolds' explanation is the correct one, the vanes should rotate with noticeably increased (perhaps, twice as much) vigor.

    Besides, the suggested modification (provided Reynolds is correct, and I am not missing something here) could increase significantly the efficiency of light-mill as a heat engine.
  • edited September 2014
    Very interesting insight. However as heat pressure was my suggested replacement for temperature, I think I should be the one " defending" the terminology.

    Indeed it is a vague concept, and one I have not empirically tested or refined. The issue I have with physical definitions at the moment is that they rely on a set of notions which are definitional in character rather than empirical. The concept of temperature is either a measure or a philosophical description of some property of materials, perceptible to human consciousness and thus discerned then distinguished by naming or terminology and then attributed to a wide range of analogous situations.

    The measure is a concrete physically observable behaviour which can be scaled. The physical behaviour is the expansion of mercury. The measure is how much it expands in a narrow capillary in a "vacuum". This expansion is in a vacuum so as to minimise counter pressure by expanding gases. Hence the idea of the relation of the expansion to a similar ideas of pressure.

    Again, pressure is measured by a column of mercury , but this time the gases are retained in the manometer. It is the pressure on the gases that is being measured in this way.

    As always these simple solutions to measures for these 2 different but related phenomenon have drawbacks and assumptions which now cannot be ignored. Consequently we move on to different standars for measuring these things. While energy may be the new standard, energy is itself highly conceptual. A complex set of reference measures are used to calibrate the unit of energy used by science and engineering. To understand these references requires a faith in the veracity of certain systematic assumptions, such as the atom for example , and all of particle physics. I do not find it convenient to share that faith.

    In addition the concept of pressure is fundamental to the notion of vis, often translated as force but equally accommodating the idea energy. Vis conceptually is a vague idea! However the measures established by Newton and his peers are designed and defined unambiguously.

    The question then is do these measures equate to our philosophicl conceptions ie Vis? The answer is no. In fact vis and vis viva are currently expressed in the momentum measure, the force measure and the kinetic energy measure. These measures over time and use have been consensually accepted as modelling the philosophical perceptions of Vis.

    Technologically these measures have proved very useful, but philosophically they have become confused with the concepts they are related to. The accelerative vis for example is nowadays called a field, but that vis impinges on the velocity of bodies within its sphere of influence. Thus the change in velocity of a body is not evidence of a field, rather it is the definition of a vis concept acting in space on the velocity of objects in and of that space. It is a definition solely toward the goal of establishing a quantitative measure.

    We therefore start with a qualitative perception of an experience of a magnitude that is extensive and varies, but that is qualitative. It is also ontological: it s how we define its existence. However to make it empirical our senses have to be narrowed down to just a few exterior receptors. These are usually sight and sound receptors. In that mode displacement and memory take on a huge significance. Our concept of measure is based on memorable Metrons and their placement and or displacement in the experience we call space and time.

    Newton more than any other, but certainly not of his own invention developed these experiences of the use and applicability of Metrons into a philosophy of Quantity. His system of Weights and measures was framed in a universal context, not merely a national or Imperial one. Thus like Archimedes Newton established a system to literally weigh the stars!

    Pressure I submit of all the qualities of vis is the most fundamental physically palpable experience that grounds all other notions of Vis. Pressure is also kinaesthetic and thus a more intuitive concept of force , energy and temperature and radiation.

    Beyond this line of thought I do not wish to go at present, leaving that to others.

    To boxerlego: I apologise if this is a distraction in your thread.
  • @Jehovajah Thank you for your intrinsic elaboration behind the temperature pressure terminology. The side discussion about temperature and its effects is no distraction at all. Temperature can have an important part when working with magnets and is a challenge to overcome and control. Here are some video experiments below demonstrating its effects.
    Curie Point Magnetic Heat Engine
    MIT Physics Demo -- Conducting Glass
    There is a mechanism for contraction based on cold pressure, just as there is one for expansion based on heat pressure.
    Let it be known that there is also a mechanism for expansion based on cold temperature called water, the only know fluid by my knowledge that is able to expand when in cold temperatures. However, generally speaking material contraction is dynamically occurring at cold temperatures through out almost everything. Watch how copper or aluminium at very cold temperatures is able to improve the eddy currents in the element in response to a magnet field. During these very cold temperature condition's the element is compressing itself and the atoms are moving closer together thus improving the magnetic effect.

    @Barau_R_Tour Thank you for the correction on the Radio meter. That was pure temperature observation on my end with my own Radio meter... I will agree that Reynolds is correct where he writes that "the explanation must be in terms of what happens not at the faces of the vanes, but near their edges". That statement resonates when dealing with eddy currents and improving efficiency with transformers. Also the statement Reynolds made provides a more enhanced view regarding certain variations of theSterling Engines, in junction to the pressure expansion happening inside the cylinder, Absolutely fascinating.
  • edited September 2014

    If you are interested in heat engines, you might find it fascinating that it is possible in principle (meaning that the second law of thermodynamics does not forbid it) to operate an oven in winter time at zero operating cost.

    Here is how it works. First we extract useful energy E1 from the air of a kitchen using a heat engine operating between the air of the kitchen at room temperature T1=300K (heater) and the outside air at below freezing temperature T0=250K (cooler). Then we use the extracted energy E1 to heat up a well-insulated oven in our kitchen to cooking temperature T2=500K. After we are done with the cooking, we run another heat engine operating between the oven (heater) and the kitchen air (cooler). The result of the work of this second engine is that it generates useful energy E2, on the one hand, and dumps some heat back to the room, on the other hand; i.e. we get back all the energy we used for heating up the oven (well, almost everything, for some energy went to cooking). At last, we use the energy E2 generated by the second engine to run backwards the first engine (i.e. use it as a refrigerator) and transfer heat from the cold winter air back to the kitchen, thereby almost restoring the air of the kitchen to the room temperature.

    The final result is that we have managed to use heat energy of the air in the kitchen for doing our cooking at ZERO operating cost!

    See details here: Free Ovens for Eskimos.
  • edited October 2014

    Part 5

    Now that the PMH Magneto has two coils sets it can generate voltages up to 120Vac. Also I show voltage and current outputs on the 9Vdc batteries 120Vac transformer to compare with the output rating on the PMH Magneto. Now one comparison I want to point out is that the magneto can generate 120V and I can compare the Transformer output with 120V 60Hz mains electricity with that of the Magneto on a equal voltage level. Now once the Transformer is connected with the PMH generator there is a voltage drop on it, unlike with the mains electricity the magneto can only output so much here.

    Now one thing I thought It would be worthy to point out here is that Edward Leedskalnin suggest using a either a dynamo or battery to power the PMH. So I thought I was a good Idea to power the PMH magneto with a dynamo and battery too.
    To get more magnet out of a coil put the coil in steel or iron tube, then the tube outside the coil will be a magnet the same as the coil's core, but the magnet poles will be opposite, it means at the same coil end if the core end is North Pole the tube end will be South Pole. In this way you will get almost again as much magnet out of the coil and in the core and tube. You can do better yet, join one end of the coil's core end with the same metal, joining core with tube. make two holes in end of metal for the coil wire ends to go out, fasten a ring on top, now you have the most efficiently client electric magnet for lifting purposes. It wastes no magnets that come from your battery or dynamo. Page 14 Magnetic Current
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