First post here, Hi y'all.
I think we need to simplify our understanding of the techniques Ed used to move such immense stones. Let's get a few things straight first and foremost: the monolithic, precision stonework found across the ancient world (Egypt, Peru, Mexico, India, etc...) was IN FACT accomplished through techniques that we currently do not understand. The precision and size is mind-boggling in most of these sites, and I reiterate these are constructions we cannot replicate or sufficiently explain with our modern technology or understanding. This is not to say constructions of this kind are impossible, but quite the contrary; we simply do not have the proper tools or understanding to manipulate stone in that way. As far as the tools used to cut and lift stones of this immensity go, I think there has been a severe miscalculation. There are potentially three reason we have no evidence of advanced stone manipulation tools in the ancient past.
#1) The ruling entities of the world have taken all advanced stoneworking tools that have been left behind as artifacts from ancient civilizations and hid them away. The reason for this is to cover up the true history of civilization on Earth- to cover up the Younger-Dryas extinction even and consequent Great Flood that reset 99% of humanity. By keeping the masses ignorant to what is physically possible, and lying to them, saying the ancient megaliths were built with slave labor and hammers and chisels, the rulers of the world gain control of "the truth," and thus gain immense power over people's minds.
#2) The tools the ancients used to build so precisely have been lost to the elements of time and nature (erosion, oxidization, etc.)
or #3) The tools were so simple we have misidentified their intended function. For example, a metal ring may look like a piece of art or jewelry, but it has subtle quantum properties that modern physics is still trying to understand. If an archaeologist or historian looked at an ancient metal ring, they would have no way to tell if it was used for electromagnetic purposes or artistic ones (or both).
First, let's get a baseline understanding of radiophysics.
In electrical engineering, magnetic (iron) transformer cores are used all the time to step up/down the electrical pressure (voltage) of alternating current systems. These cores were once made from single pieces of iron, but nowadays we use many layers of thin metal plates to make the transformer more efficient. Each layer of the transformer core can be considered an extrapolation of a toroid, or a metal ring. Sometimes the toroid is split, like in a U-I core transformer (Ed's PMH). This effectively becomes a split magnetic-core inductor, and all inductors manifest resonance. Split-ring resonators are used in metamaterials due to their inherent quantum properties. There are a lot of possible configurations when it comes to ring resonators and some configurations could even be considered artistic, suggesting that if we found them as artifacts, we would have no way to know if there was another intended function of the ring.
I've linked some articles below to help elucidate the electromagnetic qualities of metal rings. Fundamentally though, these properties are because the magnetic field takes the shape of a ring or torus, and a ring acts as an electromagnetic transceiver of sorts, electrically vibrating at its natural resonant frequency. If you read the articles you'll find these phenomena occur in basically ALL closed loops made of metal, and even some nonmetals.
Now, on to Mr. Leedskalnin. (1/2)
Ed only had access to 1940s era technology, so he more than likely wasn't using any kind of semiconductor, or any "advanced" technology for that matter. This drastically simplifies things. The chain he was using also couldn't have had a weight capacity of more than 5,000-6,000 lbs, which, regardless of the use of block and tackle systems, must have been fixed to the top of the tripod at some single point. This fixture point (presumably by the black box) must necessitate a weight capacity of greater than 18,000 lbs just to lift the revolving rock gate. This kind of fixture (assuming it could bear the immense weight of the stones) would also have to be mounted to the top of the wooden tripod, and then THAT mounting point would have to sustain tens of thousands of pounds from the chain, block and tackle, and limestone. Also, the material strength of the wooden legs of the tripod is questionable. Maybe some material science engineers can help me with the math with this one, but I don't believe the legs of the tripod could hold the weight of some of the stones without warping or breaking completely. Columns are extremely strong in compression, but the legs were not perpendicular to the ground- they were angled, which drastically reduces the compressive strength of the beam. If Ed moved extremely heavy stones with his tripod several times, we would at least see some warping of the tripod legs in the photos, yet no warping is present. The icing on the cake of improbability is the fact that Ed was a small man, so erecting the tripod alone was quite the feat. Each log was likely ~1,000 lbs, give or take. Amazing. The logistics here are patently absurd. However, we know he did use the tripod for something, or else it wouldn't have been there. We can also see the tool Ed is pictured with in the "At Work" photo hanging from the top of the tripod. The tool is inverted, but that's definitely it.
This analysis basically destroys the theory that the tripod simply lifted the stones while bearing all the weight. I hope many on this site also see this truth. It couldn't have been done with the tripod and chain alone.
So how was it done?
Well, I think the answer is, more or less, hidden in plain sight. We have to answer one question first though... What is a chain?
A chain is a series of interconnected RINGS. Iron rings, in Leedskalnin's case. Metal rings are what I believe Ed was referring to on the signs "Ring Bell" and "Ring Twice" at the Coral Castle. He was referring to ring resonators, essentially. "Ring Bell" is designating the initial vibration, and "Ring Twice" is the resulting sympathetic vibration.
It is my theory that Leedskalnin used his chain to efficiently carry alternating current, and through the opposing polarities of each adjacent loop, magnetic incoherence results. What do I mean by "magnetic incoherence?" Well, I mean gravity. Gravity is no different than static electricity. Incoherence is manifested by rubbing a balloon on your hair, then gravitation occurs when the balloon clings to small bits of styrofoam. The concept applies to the chain as well. If the chain is wrapped around a stone, and alternating current is run through the chain, the magnetic incoherence of the chain may be enough to negate the effect of gravity on the stone. It may be that simple.
So in theory...
Step 1) Run low frequency, low current AC through magnetized PMH (U-I transformer core) with the core looped through the last link of the chain
Step 2) Wrap the chain around a block you wish to move
Step 3) Activate the DC electromagnet at top of the tripod ("At Work" photo"), located above the block that is wrapped with the chain. This, in theory, will polarize the stone, either making it rise or fall proportionally to the polarity and strength of the magnetic field.
- This could also, in theory, weaken the atomic bonds between the molecules of the stone, thereby softening it, allowing it to be cut and shaped with ease
This is just a rough idea for now and I'd appreciate any input on my theories. They are testable so they should also be fairly straightforward to prove or disprove. If anyone is so inclined, I encourage you since I am currently unable to test myself.
I like your theories and have come to similar notions. The AC could have come from his hand cranked generator where he would have been able to pinpoint just about any frequency up to the units maximum speed. And there may be some actual ringing when the right resonant frequency was hit. Also I read somewhere long ago that Tesla said if he ever needed to move heavy object that he just wrapped with a single wire...
It's been many years since I've tested it, but I think running AC through a charged PMH kills the charge. I could be mistaken and will have to retest it when I build another PMH. You definitely cannot charge a PMH with AC. Although running DC through the steel of this pulse motor had no effect on the magnetism produced by the coils.
It's been often discussed, but if you look closely at this picture you can see has erected 3 tripods...
If you could find any more info on Tesla's method for moving heavy objects, I'd greatly appreciate it. Wrapping what is essentially an inductor around a stone seems to be the most realistic/practical way to either magnetize or alter the mass and physical aspects of the stone. I subscribe to Ken Wheeler's idea of gravity simply being incoherent magnetism, so coiling or layering highly ferromagnetic material like iron would be a great way to induce incoherent magnetism. My intuition tells me AC would be the best for this application, but I'd also be curious to see what would happen if a PMH was charged (DC, with crossbar in place) continuously while looped through the end of a chain link. What would happen if the entire chain became one large permanent magnet?
As far as running AC through the charged/magnetized PMH goes, my theoretical understanding is that the magnetized core would actually increase the inductance of AC. Saturable Reactors and Magnetic Amplifiers work on this principle. You're definitely right about testing this though. I need to find a good crossbar for my PMH so until then I can't test much.
I also have come to the conclusion that a process similar to EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining) was used. This process involves either a charged metal wire or what is basically a stamp that presses into the desired material and disintegrates whatever it touches. I am sure a similar process was used in the construction of the Coral Castle.
On a final note, I haven't seen it discussed much here, but what is the tube adjacent to the generator? I think it's an AC electromagnet just as Leedskalnin described in his books.
"To get more magnet out of a coil put the coil in steel or iron tube, then the tube outside the coil will be a magnet the same as the coil's core, but the magnet poles will be opposite, it means at the same coil end if the core end is North Pole the tube end will be South Pole. In this way you will get almost again as much magnet out of the coil and in the core and tube. You can do better yet, join one end of the coil's core end with the same metal, joining core with tube. make two holes in end of metal for the coil wire ends to go out, fasten a ring on top, now you have the most efficiently client electric magnet for lifting purposes. It wastes no magnets that come from your battery or dynamo."
Interesting mention of a ring here. What happens if an AC electromagnet is directly powered by the PMH as a transformer using his generator, thus generating an alternating field which would be directly in phase with the rotation of the wheel? Would this cause the wheel to act like the rotor of a permanent magnet motor?
I know these are a lot of questions but they're ones I've been pondering for a long time. I need to get my testing materials in order before I can actually test these theories.
I have searched for the origin of Tesla's method in the past to no avail. I read about it in the early 2000's on a blog post over at the Keelynet forum. The post was made by the forum owner Jerry Decker who passed away in 2017.
When I visited Rock Gate about 20 years ago there was a reel of flattened copper wire that had a kink every few feet like it might been wrapped around a large block.
It's been a long time and I could be mistaking the copper for oxidized iron. When Ed didn't use iron cores with his coils I think he would often use iron wire.
You may be already aware that Ed said to use laminated iron if possible for the PMH crossbar perhaps for the incoherent magnetism you mentioned.
I definitely agree he used iron wire. Certainly, it's an underexplored area when it comes to Coral Castle. He probably used it for much more than we give him credit for. If the wire you saw years ago looked red, it was probably rusted iron. I can't imagine an insulated copper wire being visibly red or copper colored unless the insulation was removed. Also, I think the laminations in the crossbar would increase the efficiency of the PMH when used as a transformer.
Could you elaborate on why you interpret this as an AC electromaget?
It's just a hunch, but he describes the most "efficient magnet for lifting purposes" as an iron tube with an iron-cored inductor that is joined to the metal at the bottom of the tube. This makes the outer tube the opposite polarity as the inner core. If AC is passed through this coil, it becomes an AC electromagnet. Basically, it acts like a ringing bell. Except, in this case, it would be ringing with electromagnetic light.
I can think of three purposes for the AC electromagnet being placed here.
1) It was used to magnetize the chain at the frequency of the turning generator (thereby turning the whole chain into a transformer core)
2) It was used to keep the generator spinning. AC from the rotating magnetic field of the generator would then be picked up by the PMH (transformer core) and the output of the coil could directly power this electromagnet. Since the field produced by the AC electromagnet would be directly proportional in frequency to the rotation of the generator wheel, I think it may create a synergistic effect- keeping the wheel spinning by pushing and pulling the magnets of the wheel, which is adjacent to it.
3) A large metal ring (potentially with a split in it) was placed on the top of the electromagnet, making it a transmitter. This ring can be seen in a few photos.
I also think the tool Ed used in his "At Work" photo was this same type of AC electromagnet, although I admit it may have been used as a DC electromagnet as well. This tool is the one we see hanging upside down on Ed's largest tripod, and we also see some wires coming down from it too. This was probably used to create a strong local magnetic field above the stones he wanted to lift.
If you don't know how to use a pinch roller. Copper pipe becomes a copper band.
Point the north pole of the electro magnet towards the earth north pole. The north pole magnets are stronger than the south pole magnets.
Season the flat copper pipe so it is nonconducive and make a pancake.
I looked at all the words you highlighted and agree most of those words looks like he is talking about the machine running its function. After a while of the copper kissing the iron, it becomes dull and no longer fresh.
Right now I am kicking myself for not realizing how to make my old switch operate above the table.
At least now I see the importance of the two pillars.
Do you have any log chain? If so wrap a 100 feet of chain around a fallen tree. Make sure the chain is spaced so it doesn't touch the sides of the chain. Now pulse DC current the length of the chain. That tree should be a magnet. Check with a compass.
According to the wooden box on my tripod, my tripod is not sitting level.
That box is just big enough to house a buzz switch.
Which reminds me to tell my neighbors to put their ears on and see if they hear my wheel running.
Keep in mind I am limiting current with those flashing lights. Funny in the video the magnets appear to be spinning clockwise.
If you want AC from DC you double this switch.
First video is no capacitors and the second video is with 2 capacitors. Notice the difference in sparks.
That is with a bad connection and a single diode that really isn't needed.
The dagger picture, the sharp edge points south. When I flipped the disc the blade started pointing the sharp edge east. I've spun it multiple times and it always comes to rest pointing in the same directions. Any explanation on why that is happening?
I guess I should check to see which pole is pointing towards the suspended blade.
I think given enough time all my iron pieces will rust. My magnets will get weak. My capacitors will wear out. Battery will die.