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The Faraday paradox or Faraday's paradox is any experiment in which Michael Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction appears to predict an incorrect result. The paradoxes fall into two classes:Even though Faraday's paradox is phrased in terms of electromagnetic induction, it would be fair to say that this conundrum goes back to Ampère who invented a motor, the possibility of which Faraday considered improbable. Even Wikipedia entry on Faraday's Paradox does not mention Ampère's name, moreover it appears that there is no Wikipedia entry on Ampère’s Motor to begin with.
(1) Faraday's law appears to predict that there will be zero EMF but there is a non-zero EMF.
(2) Faraday's law appears to predict that there will be a non-zero EMF but there is a zero EMF.
Faraday deduced his law of induction in 1831, after inventing the first electromagnetic generator or dynamo, but was never satisfied with his own explanation of the paradox.
In order to understand the path leading to the discovery of Ampère’s motor, it is important to discuss the first electric motor in the history of physics, presented by Faraday (1791–1867). Following Øersted’s historical discovery (1820) of the deflection of a magnetized needle by a nearby long straight wire, Faraday began to devote himself to the study of electromagnetism. In September 1821 he created what is normally considered as the first electric motor... Faraday sent a small model of the apparatus to several scientists, including Ampère. In this pocket apparatus the inclined wire rotates around a fixed magnetized piece of metal... Faraday informed Ampère about his discovery in October 1821. In his first paper describing this device Faraday mentioned the following:Tesla, not surprisingly, recognized the fundamental importance of Faraday's discovery and was fascinated by it. In his 1891Notes on an Unipolar Dynamo Tesla says:
Having succeeded thus far, I endeavored to make a wire and a magnet revolve on their own axis by preventing the rotation in a circle round them, but have not been able to get the slightest indications that such can be the case; nor does it, on consideration, appear probable.
It is characteristic of fundamental discoveries, of great achievements of intellect, that they retain an undiminished power upon the imagination of the thinker. The memorable experiment of Faraday with a disc rotating between the two poles of a magnet, which has borne such magnificent fruit, has long passed into every-day experience; yet there are certain features about this embryo of the present dynamos and motors which even to-day appear to us striking, and are worthy of the most careful study.We shall see in this discussion that Faraday's paradox runs even deeper and goes to the heart of what went terribly wrong with Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, leading ultimately to the rise of insanity called Special Theory of Relativity and failure of basically healthy attempts by Maxwell to understand the phenomenon of electromagnetism on the basis of pure mechanics.